پارادایم های زناشویی در جوانان ایرانی: معرفی و ارزشیابی یک نظریۀ نوین در زمینۀ روابط زناشویی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی،کرمانشاه، ایران

2 دانشیار روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی،کرمانشاه، ایران

3 دانشیار روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران.

4 استادیار روانشناسی، دانشگاه علم و فرهنگ، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این مقاله دارای دو بخش اصلی است. در بخش نخست به معرفی اُلگوی «پارادایم‌های زناشویی» (ویلوگبی و همکاران، 2015) پرداخته شده است. در این مفهوم‌پردازی، تمام باورهای فرد (زن یا مرد) دربارۀ ازدواج و زندگی زناشویی را می‌توان در 2 حیطۀ متمایز دسته‌بندی نمود: «باورهای مربوط به متأهل شدن» و «باورهای مربوط به متأهل ماندن». «باورهای مربوط به متأهل شدن» نمایشگر باورهای فرد دربارۀ «ازدواج» و اهمیت و جایگاه آن در زندگی، و همچنین دیدگاه کلی نسبت به نحوۀ انجام آن است. این باورها مشتمل بر سه بُعد متمایز است: «زمان‌بندی زناشویی» (دیدگاه فرد دربارۀ زمان‌بندی ایده‌آل و موردانتظار برای ازدواج، طول موردانتظار عشقبازی‌ها)، «برجستگی زناشویی» (باورهای فرد در زمینۀ اهمیت نسبی و اهمیت کلی ازدواج و متأهل شدن)، و «بافتار زناشویی» (باورها و نگرش‌های فرد دربارۀ بافتاری که ازدواج باید در آن اتفاق اُفتد). «باورهای مربوط به متأهل ماندن» نمایانگر باورهای فرد دربارۀ ماهیت و شیوه‌های مدیریت زندگی زناشویی است. این باورها نیز دارای سه بُعد متمایز می‌باشند: «فرآیندهای زناشویی» (باورهای مبنی بر اینکه فرآیند ازدواج باید چگونه باشد، شامل باورهایی دربارۀ نقش‌های جنسیتی (نقش‌های زناشویی)، باورهای دربارۀ تلاش برای ساختن زندگی زناشویی (کوشش‌های زناشویی)، و سایر فرآیندهای رابطه‌ای در امر ازدواج)، «مرکزیت زناشویی» (مشتمل است بر باورهایی دربارۀ اهمیت نقش زناشویی/همسری در رابطه با سایر نقش‌هایی که یک فرد بزرگسال متأهل ایفا می‌نماید)، و «ماندگاری زناشویی» (باورهایی مبنی بر تعهد به ازدواج و پذیرفتنی بودن طلاق). در بخش دوم، به بررسی «پارادایم-های زناشویی» در میان جوانان ایرانی (مرد و زن) و مقایسه‌های بین جنسیتی شش بُعد آن پرداخته شده است. نمونۀ پژوهش مشتمل بر 644 دانشجو (323 زن و 321 مرد) بود که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری طبقه‌ای (طبقات: جنسیت، دانشگاه‌ها، مقاطع تحصیلی) در پژوهش وارد شدند. برای اندازه‌گیری پارادایم‌های زناشویی، از «مقیاس پارادایم‌های زناشویی» (MPS) (ویلوگبی و هال، 2015) استفاده گردید. یافته‌های پژوهش نشان دادند که

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Marital Paradigms Among Iranian Youth: Introduction and Evaluation of a new theory on Marital Relations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hassan Shahi 1
  • Khodamorad Momeni 2
  • Jahangir Karami 3
  • Emad Ashrafi 4
1 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
2 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
3 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
4 Department of Psychology, Faculty of Sciences and Culture, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

This article has two main parts. The first section introduces the model of "Marital Paradigms" (Willoughby et al., 2015). In this conceptualization, all the beliefs of a person (woman or man) about marriage and marital life can be categorized in two distinct areas: "Beliefs about Getting Married" and "Beliefs about Being Married". "Beliefs about Getting Married" represent one's beliefs about "marriage" and its importance in life, as well as a general view of how it is done. These beliefs consist of three distinct dimensions: "Marital Timing" (one's view of the ideal and expected timing for marriage, the expected length of love), "Marital Salience" (individual beliefs about the relative importance and global importance of marriage and getting married), "Marital Context" (beliefs and attitudes about the context in which marriage should occur). "Beliefs about Being Married" represent one's beliefs about the nature and methods of managing marital life. These beliefs also have three distinct dimensions: "Marital Processes" (beliefs about how the marriage process should take place, including beliefs about gender roles (Marital Roles), beliefs about attempting to make marital life (Marital Efforts), and other marriage-related processes), "Marital Centrality" (it is based on beliefs about the importance of marital/spouse's role in relation to other roles played by an adult married person), and "Marital Permanence" (beliefs about the commitment to marry and the admissibility of divorce). In the second section, the study of "Marital Paradigms" among Iranian youths (male and female) and gender-related comparisons of six dimensions are discussed. The research sample consisted of 644 students (323 females and 321 males) who entered the study using stratified sampling (stratums: gender, universities, academic grades). To measure Marital Paradigms, "Marital Paradigms Scale" (MPS) (Willoughby and Hall, 2015) was used. The results of the study showed that men and women have different patterns of Marital Paradigms. Meanwhile

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Marital Timing
  • Marital Salience
  • Marital Context
  • Marital Processes
  • Marital Centrality
  • Marital Permanence
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