حافظه فعال شنیداری و دیداری در دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان: پیش و پس از مداخله

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری روان شناسی تربیتی دانشگاه تهران. تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه روان شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی تربیتی و مشاوره دانشگاه تهران.تهران، ایران

5 استاد روان‌شناسی تربیتی و مشاوره، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

چکیده

حافظه فعال نقش تعیین‌کننده‌ای در عملکرد تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان با ناتوانی در خواندن دارد. با این وجود پژوهش‌های آموزشی انجام شده یافته‌های متفاوتی را از جهت سودمندی برنامه‌های موجود گزارش کرده‌اند. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی اثربخشی برنامه آموزشی حافظه فعال ویژه‌ دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان انجام شده است. این برنامه هر دو بعد شنیداری و دیداری حافظه فعال را مدنظر داشته است. پژوهش حاضر از نوع طرح‌های نیمه آزمایشی با پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون- پیگیری و گروه گواه بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش شامل دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان پایه اول تا سوم دوره ابتدایی بود که به مراکز اختلالات یادگیری شهر تهران مراجعه‌کرده بودند. نمونه شامل 30 نفر از آنان بود که به روش در دسترس انتخاب شدند. افراد گروه نمونه بر اساس پایه تحصیلی همگن و به صورت تصادفی در گروه آزمایش و گواه جایگزین شدند. گروه آزمایش 24 جلسه آموزش حافظه فعال دریافت کرد و گروه گواه هیچ برنامه آموزشی دریافت نکرد. آزمون حافظه فعال برای کودکان (پیکرینگ و گثرکول، 2001؛ ترجمه ارجمندنیا، 1396) پیش از اجرای برنامه آموزشی، پس از آن و همچنین دو ماه پس از پایان مداخله از هر دو گروه گرفته شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری با اندازه‌گیری مکرر، تحلیل شدند. یافته‌ها نشان‌دهنده تفاوت معنادار بین نمرات گروه آزمایش و گواه در پس‌آزمون و همچنین پایداری این تفاوت‌ها در آزمون پیگیری بودند و از این‌رو می‌توان سودمندی برنامه آموزشی حافظه فعال ویژه کودکان نارساخوان را در رشد توانایی حافظه فعال شنیداری و دیداری آن‌ها، تأیید کرد. اندازه اثرهای به‌دست‌آمده نیز نشان‌دهنده تأثیر مطلوب برنامه آموزشی بر ابعاد گوناگون حافظه فعال بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Auditory and visual working memory in dyslexic students: before and after intervention

نویسندگان [English]

  • Elham Sadat Naji 1
  • Saeid Hassanzadeh 2
  • mohsen shokoohi-yekta 3
  • Elaheh Hejazi Moghari 4
  • Javad Ejei 5
1 Ph.D. in Educational Psychology, University of Tehran. Tehran. Iran.
2 Associate Professor of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Psychology and Education of Exceptional Children, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
4 Associate Professor of Educational Psychology and Counseling, University of Tehran. Tehran, Iran
5 Professor of Educational Psychology and Counseling, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Working memory has a important role in the academic performance of the students with reading disability. However educational researchers have reported different results in the effectiveness of existing programs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of working memory educational program on enhancing working memory performance of dyslexic students. This education considered both auditory and visual dimension. This study was Quasi-experimental design with pre-test, post-test, and fallow-up. The statistical population was all the primary school students with dyslexia who went to learning disorders centers in Tehran, 30 of them were selected by convenience sampling and were assigned by random in experimental and control groups. The experimental group experienced the working memory educational program in 24 sessions, 25 to 30minutes. Working Memory Test Battery for Children (Gathercole & Pickering, 2001) was taken before and after education and also two months after finishing the program it was taken for both experimental and control group. Multi-variable variance analysis with repeated measures were used for data analyzing. Results showed significant differences between experimental and control group in post-test and also stability of these differences in follow-up test. In conclusion effectiveness of working memory educational program for dyslexic children is determined in enhancing their ability of auditory and visual working memory.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "working memory educational program"
  • "auditory working memory"
  • "visual working memory"
  • "dyslexia"
  • "reading disability"
ارجمندنیا، علی اکبر؛ و شکوهی یکتا، محسن. (1391). بهبود حافظه فعال. تهران: انتشارات تیمورزاده-نشر طبیب.
ارجمندنیا، علی اکبر؛ و سیف‌نراقی، مریم. (1388). «تأثیر راهبرد مرور ذهنی بر عملکرد حافظه فعال دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان.» مجله علوم رفتاری. 3(3)، 173-178.
پیکرینگ، سوزان؛ و گثرکول، سوزان. (1396). مجموعه آزمون حافظه فعال برای کودکان (حاف بک). ترجمه ارجمدنیا، ع.ا. تهران: رشد فرهنگ.
توکلی، زهره؛ جمهری، فرهاد؛ و کراسکیان موجمباری، آدیس (1394). بررسی اثر یکپارچگی حسی و تمرینات تفکر فضایی در بهبود هوش غیر کلامی کودکان مبتلابه اختلال یادگیری. مطالعات روانشناسی بالینی، 2(5)، 19-33.
سعدالهی، علی؛ مخلصین، مریم؛ مداح، مرضیه؛ کسبی، فاطمه؛ سلمانی، معصومه؛ و قربانی، راهب. (1394). مقایسه حافظه فعال واج‌شناختی در کودکان طبیعی و کودکان مبتلا به نارساخوان مدارس ابتدایی شهر سمنان. نشریه کومش، 1، ۷(۲)، ۴۳۳-۴۳۸.
شریفی، علی اکبر؛ زارع، حسین؛ و حیدری، میترا. (1392). مقایسه حافظه‌ی فعال بین دانش‌آموزان نارساخوان و دانش‌آموزان عادی. ناتوانی‌های یادگیری، 2(3)، 6-17.
صفرپور‌دهکردی، ندا؛ وفایی، مریم؛ و افروز، غلامعلی. (١٣٩٠). مقایسه‌ی سرعت نامیدن و عملکرد مؤلفه‌های سه‌گانه‌ی حافظه‌ی فعال در کودکان نارساخوان و عادی. فصلنامه ایرانی کودکان استثنائی،١١(١)، 1-21.
کلانترقریشی، منیر؛ برجعلی، احمد؛ زامیاد، عباس؛ و درتاج، فریبرز. (1291). اثربخشی آموزش و تمرین‌های تن‌آرامی بر اضطراب و ظرفیت حافظه کاری. مطالعات روانشناسی بالینی، 2(6)، 65-88.
نعمت‌زاده، شهین؛ دادرس، محمد؛ دستجردی‌کاظمی، مهدی؛ و منصوری‌زاده، محرم. (1390). واژگان پایه فارسی از زبان کودکان ایرانی. تهران: منادی تربیت.
Albano, D., Garcia, R. B., & Cornoldi, C. (2016). Deficits in working memory visual-phonological binding in children with dyslexia. Psychology & Neuroscience, 9(4), 411.
Alloway, T.P. (2011). A comparison of working memory profiles in children with ADHD and DCD. Child Neuropsychology, 21, 1-12.
Alloway, T.P. (2009). Working memory, but not IQ, predicts subsequent learning in children with learning difficulties. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 25, 92-98.
Alloway, T.P. & Alloway, R. G. (2010). Investigating the predictive roles of working memory and IQ in academic attainment. Experimental Child Psychology, 106, 20-29.
Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., Adams, A. M., Willis, C., Eaglen, R., & Lamont, E. (2005). Working memory and phonological awareness as predictors of progress towards early learning goals at school entry. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 23(3), 417-426.
Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2006). Verbal and visuospatial short-term and working memory in children: Are they separable?. Child Development77(6), 1698-1716.
Alloway, T.P., Gathercole, S.E., Willis, C. & Adams, A.M. (2005). Working memory and special educational needs. Educational and Child Psychology, 22, 56-67.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–5), Washington, DC; London, England.
Archibald, L. M., & Gathercole, S. E. (2006). Short‐term and working memory in specific language impairment. International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders41(6), 675-693.
Baddeley, A. (2003). Working memory: looking back and looking forward. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4(10), 829-839.
Baddeley, A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417–423.
Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. J. (1994). Developments in the concept of working memory. Neuropsychology, 8(4), 485-493.
Baddeley, A. D. & Hitch, G. J. (1974). Working memory. In G. A. Bower (Ed.),The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 8, 47–89). New York: Academic Press.
Blomert, L. (2011). The neural signature of orthographic-phonological binding in successful and failing reading development. NeuroImage, 57, 695–703.
Brandenburg, J., Klesczewski, J., Fischbach, A., Schuchardt, K., Büttner, G., & Hasselhorn, M. (2015). Working memory in children with learning disabilities in reading versus spelling: Searching for overlapping and specific cognitive factors. Journal of learning disabilities, 48(6), 622-634.
Dahlin, K. I. E. (2011). Effects of working memory training on reading in children with special needs. Reading and Writing, 24(4), 479-491.
Dawes, E., Leitão, S., Claessen, M., & Nayton, M. (2015). A profile of working memory ability in poor readers. Australian Psychologist, 50(5), 362-371.
Dehaene, S. (2009). Reading in the brain: The new science of how we read. Penguin.
De Weerdt, F., Desoete, A. & Roeyers, H. (2013). Working memory in children with reading disabilities and/or mathematical disabilities. Learning Disabilities 46(5), 461-472.
Gathercole, S.E., Alloway, T.P., Willis, C,. Adams, A.M. (2006). Working memory in children with reading disabilities. Experimental Child Psychology, 7(3), 265-281.
Gathercole, S.E., Baddeley, A.D. (1993). Working memory and language. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2000). Assessment of working memory in six- and seven-year old children. Educational Psychology, 92, 377–390
Gathercole, S.E., Pickering, S.J., Ambridge, B. & Wearing, H. (2004). The structure of working memory from 4 to 15 years of age. Developmental Psychology, 40(2):177-190.
Gathercole, S. E., Woolgar, F., Kievit, R. A., Astle, D., Manly, T., Holmes, J., & CALM Team. (2016). How common are WM deficits in children with difficulties in reading and mathematics?.» Journal of applied research in memory and cognition, 5(4), 384-394.
Hahn,N., Foxe,J.J. & Molholm,S. (2014). Impairments of multisensory integration and crosssensory learning as pathways to dyslexia. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 47, 384–392.
Holmes, J., Gathercole, S. E. & Dunning, D. L. (2009). Adaptive training leads to sustained enhancement of poor working memory in children. Developmental Science, 12, F9 –F15.
Jeffries, S. & Everatt, J. (2004). Working memory: Its role in dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties. Dyslexia, 10(3), 196-214.
Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 317–324.
Klingberg, T., Forssberg, H., Westerberg, H. (2002). Training of Working Memory in Children with ADHD. Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 24(6): 781-791.
Kronenberger, W.G. & Meyer, R.G. (2001). Child Clinician's Handbook, The, 2nd Edition. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Lyon, G. R., Shaywitz, S. E. & Shaywitz, B. A. (2003). Defining dyslexia, comorbidity, teachers’ knowledge of language and reading: A definition of dyslexia. Annals of Dyslexia, 53, 1-14.
Masoura, E. V. (2006). Establishing the Link between Working Memory Function and Learning Disabilities. Learning disabilities: A contemporary journal, 4(2), 29-41.
Melby-Lervåg, M; Redick, T. S.; Hulme, C (2016). Working Memory Training Does Not Improve Performance on Measures of Intelligence or Other Measures of Far Transfer. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 11(4), 512–534.
Mezzacappa, E. & Buckner, J.C. (2010). Working Memory Training for Children with Attention Problems or Hyperactivity: A School-Based Pilot Study. School Mental Health, 2(4), 202-208.
Morrison, A. & Chein, J. (2011). Does working memory training work? The promise and challenges of enhancing cognition by training working memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 18, 46 - 60.
Nevo, E., Breznitz, Z. (2011). Assessment of working memory components at 6 years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later. Experimental Child Psychology,109, 73–90.
Oakhill, J., Yuill, N., & Garnham, A. (2011). The differential relations between verbal, numerical and spatial working memory abilities and children's reading comprehension. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 4(1), 83-106.
Oconnor, B., Spencer, F.H., & Patton, W. (2003). The role of working memory in relation to cognitive functioning in children. Paper presented in 38th APS annual conference proceeding, Perth, W.A., Australia.
Papalia, D. E. (2013). An investigation of memory function in dyslexic children. British journal of Psychology. 71(4), 487-503.
Passolunghi, M. C. (2006). Working memory and mathematical disability. In T. P. Alloway & S. E. Gathercole (Eds.), Working memory and neurodevelopmental condition, 113–138. Hove, England: Psychology Press.
Peng P., Fuchs D. (2016). A Meta-Analysis of working memory deficits in children with learning difficulties: is there a difference between verbal domain and numerical domain?. Learning Disabilities, 49, 3–20.
Pickering, S.J. (2006). Assessment of Working Memory in Children. In S. Pickering (Ed.), Working Memory and Education (pp. 241–272). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Pickering, S. J., & Gathercole, S. E. (2004). Distinctive working memory profiles in children with varying special educational needs. Educational Psychology, 24, 393–408.
Shipstead, Z., Redick, T. S. & Engle, R. W. (2010). Does working memory training generalize?. Psychologica Belgica, 50, 245–276.
Shiranm A. & Breznitz, Z. (2011). The effect of cognitive training on recall range and speed of information processing in the working memory of dyslexic and skilled readers. Neurolinguistics,24(5), 524–37.
Swanson H. L. (2006). Working memory and reading disabilities: Both phonological and executive processing deficits are important. In Alloway T. P., Gathercole S. E. (Eds.), Working memory and neurodevelopmental disorders, 59–88. 
Swanson, H.L. (2003). Age-related differences in learning disabled and skilled readers' working memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85(1), 1-31.
Torgesen, J. K. (2001). Learning disabilities as a working memory deficit the important next questions. Issues in Education, 7(1), 93-102.
Valdois, S,. Peyrin, C,. Lassus-Sangosse, D,. Lallier, M,. Demonet, J.F. & Kandel, S. (2014). Dyslexia in a French-Spanish bilingual girl: behavioural and neural modulations following a visual attention span intervention. Cortex, 53, 120-145.
Warmington, M. & Hulme, C. (2012). Phoneme awareness, visual-verbal paired-associate learning, and rapid automatized naming as predictors of individual differences in reading ability. Scientific Studies of Reading, 16, 45–62.