The Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Therapy on Depression and Rumination after romantic Relationship Breakup: A single case study

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 M.A. in Consulting, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

2 Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences,University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

چکیده

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of compassion-focused therapy on Depression and Rumination after a romantic breakup. The present study was carried out using the single-case quasi-experimental method and a simple baseline method. For this purpose, three female participants were selected through targeted sampling and they were treated through an individual Compassion-focused Therapy (CFT) during eight 90-min sessions. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Rumination (RRS) questionnaires in the baseline stage (pre-treatment) during the second, fourth, sixth and eighth sessions, and in the one-month follow-up stage. Moreover, in the pre-treatment stage, the participants completed the Love Trauma Inventory (LTI) and the MMPI-2RF questionnaires to identify the severity of disturbance after breakup and to detect the serious disorder in axis, respectively. Then they were interviewed in order to identify their personality disorder. For data analysis, clinical significance method and the recovery percentage index were used. The results showed that compassion-focused therapy has a significant effect on the reduction of Depression and mental Rumination. The percentage of non-overlap data (PND) on the Depression Scale was 100 for the first and second participants and 75 for the third participant; it was 100 on the rumination scale for all three participants. The rate of recovery of depression in the first, second, third participant was 65%, 72%, 25%, the rumination rate in the first, second, third participant was 47%, 42%, 33%, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who experienced a breakup after a compassion-focused therapy look at themselves with a new and compassionate look at their own.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Therapy on Depression and Rumination after romantic Relationship Breakup: A single case study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mina Soltani 1
  • Maryam Alsadat Fatehizade 2
1 M.A. in Consulting, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences,University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of compassion-focused therapy on Depression and Rumination after a romantic breakup. The present study was carried out using the single-case quasi-experimental method and a simple baseline method. For this purpose, three female participants were selected through targeted sampling and they were treated through an individual Compassion-focused Therapy (CFT) during eight 90-min sessions. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Rumination (RRS) questionnaires in the baseline stage (pre-treatment) during the second, fourth, sixth and eighth sessions, and in the one-month follow-up stage. Moreover, in the pre-treatment stage, the participants completed the Love Trauma Inventory (LTI) and the MMPI-2RF questionnaires to identify the severity of disturbance after breakup and to detect the serious disorder in axis, respectively. Then they were interviewed in order to identify their personality disorder. For data analysis, clinical significance method and the recovery percentage index were used. The results showed that compassion-focused therapy has a significant effect on the reduction of Depression and mental Rumination. The percentage of non-overlap data (PND) on the Depression Scale was 100 for the first and second participants and 75 for the third participant; it was 100 on the rumination scale for all three participants. The rate of recovery of depression in the first, second, third participant was 65%, 72%, 25%, the rumination rate in the first, second, third participant was 47%, 42%, 33%, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that people who experienced a breakup after a compassion-focused therapy look at themselves with a new and compassionate look at their own.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rumination
  • Relationship Dissolution
  • loss
  • Termination
  • Depressives
  • Compassionate Mind
Ahmadpour Dizaji, J., Zahrakar, K., Kiamanesh, A. (2017). Comparative Efficacy of Compassion _Focused Therapy (CFT) and Well_Being Therapy (WT) on Psychological Capital in Female College Students with romantic Failure. Scientific Research Quarterly of Woman and Culture, 9(31), 7-21. [Persian].
Akbari, E., Poursharifi, H., Fahimi, S., Azimi, Z., Alilou, M. M., Amiri Pichakolaei, A., & Vahidi Madadlou, P. (2015). Effectiveness of emotion focused therapy on sexual victims of romantic relationships: A single case study. Journal of Fundamentals of Mental Health18(1), 10-21. [Parsian]
Allen, A., & Leary, M. (2010). Self-compassion, stress and coping. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 107–118.
Amanelahi, A., Tardast, K., Aslani, K. (2016). Prediction of Depression Based on Components of self- Compassion in Girl Students with Emotional Breakdown Experience in Ahvaz Universities. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 8(2), 77-88. [Parsian]
Amiri, F., Moslemifar, M., Showani, E., & Panahi, A. (2020). Effectiveness of forgiveness therapy in treatment of symptoms of depression, anxiety, and anger among female students with love Trauma Syndrome. Journal of Advanced Pharmacy Education & Research| Jan-Mar10(S1), 99. [Parsian]
Anders, S. L., Frazier, P. A., & Shallcross, S. L. (2012). Prevalence and effects of life event exposure among undergraduate and community college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(3), 449–457.
Andrade, N. O., Alcázar-Olán, R., Matías, O. M., Guerrero, A. R., & Espinosa, A. D. (2017). Anger rumination scale: Validation in Mexico. The Spanish journal of psychology20.
Bagherinejad, M, Salehi Fadri, J and Tabatabai, M. (2010). Relationship between intellectual rumination and depression in a sample of Iranian students. Educational studies and psychology, 11 (1), 38-21.
Baker, D. A., Caswell, H. L., & Eccles, F. J. (2019). Self-compassion and depression, anxiety, and resilience in adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 90, 154-161.
Barutçu Yıldırım, F., & Demir, A. (2015). Breakup adjustment in young adulthood. Journal of Counseling & Development93(1), 38-44.
Batts Allen, A., Barton, J., & Stevenson, O. (2015). Presenting a self-compassionate image after an interpersonal transgression. Self and Identity, 14(1), 33–50.
Beaumont, E. A., Jenkins, P., & Galpin, A. J. (2012). ‘Being kinder to myself’: a prospective comparative study, exploring post-trauma therapy outcome measures, for two groups of clients, receiving either cognitive behaviour therapy or cognitive behaviour therapy and compassionate mind training. Counselling Psychology Review27(1), 31-43.
Beaumont, E., Durkin, M., Hollins Martin, C. J., & Carson, J. (2016). Measuring relationships between self‐compassion, compassion fatigue, burnout and well‐being in student counsellors and student cognitive behavioural psychotherapists: A quantitative survey. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 16(1), 15-23.
Behdost, P., Kargar, K., Ziaaddini, Z., & Salimi, H. (2019). The effectiveness of spiritual-religious psychotherapy on love trauma syndrome and acceptance in female students with love failure. Health, Spirituality and Medical Ethics6(2), 45-51.
Boersma, K., Hakanson, A., Salomon son, E., & Johansson, I. (2014). Compassion focused therapy to counteract shame, self-criticism and isolation: A replicated single case experimental study for individuals with social anxiety. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 45(2), 89–98.
Brunson, J. A., Øverup, C. S., & Acitelli, L. K. (2019). Lover and learner: Exploring relational schema change following relationship dissolution. The Journal of social psychology159(3), 270-283.
Burscheid, E., & Reis, H. T. (1998). Attraction and close relationships. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology (4th ed., pp. 193–281). New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Chung, M. C., Farmer, S., Grant, K., Newton, R., Payne, S., Perry, M., ... & Stone, N. (2003). Coping with post‐traumatic stress symptoms following relationship dissolution. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress19(1), 27-36.
Dehghani, M., Atef-Vahid, M. K., & Gharaee, B. (2011). Efficacy of short–term anxiety-regulating psychotherapy on love trauma syndrome. Iranian journal of psychiatry and behavioral sciences5(2), 18.
Dehkhoda, F., & Popal, A. (2015). The effect of group therapy based on logotherapy on love trauma syndrome. Journal of International Health Sciences & Research5(10), 286-9.
Diedrich, A., Grant, M., Hofmann, S. G., Hiller, W., & Berking, M. (2014). Self-compassion as an emotion regulation strategy in major depressive disorder. Behaviour research and therapy58, 43-51
Dzwonkowska, I., & Zak-Lykus, A. (2015). Self-compassion and social functioning of people: A research review. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 46(1), 82–87
Eisma, M. C., Schut, H. A., Stroebe, M. S., Boelen, P. A., van den Bout, J., & Stroebe, W. (2015). Adaptive and maladaptive rumination after loss: A three‐wave longitudinal study. British Journal of Clinical Psychology54(2), 163-180.
Eslamian, A., Moradi, A., & Salehi, A. (2019). Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Group Therapy on Sleep Quality, Rumination and Resilience of Women in Isfahan City Suffering from Depression in Summer 2018. International Journal of Medical Investigation8(4), 0-0. [Parsian]
Falconer, C. J., Rovira, A., King, J. A., Gilbert, P., Antley, A., Fearon, P., ... & Brewin, C. R. (2016). Embodying self-compassion within virtual reality and its effects on patients with depression. BJPsych open2(1), 74-80.
Fathi-Ashtiani A, Dastani M. (2009). Psychological tests: personality and mental health evaluation. Tehran: Besat. [Persian].
Fatolaahzadeh, N., Majlesi, Z., Mazaheri, Z., Rostami, M., Navabinejad, S. (2017). The effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy with internalized shame and self-criticism on emotionally abused women. Journal of Psychological Studies, 13(2), 151-168. [Persian].
Field, T., Diego, M., Pelaez, M., Deeds, O., & Delgado, J. (2009). Breakup distress in university students. Adolescence, 44(176), 705–727.
Foshay, J. E., & O'Sullivan, L. F. (2019). Coping and Unwanted Pursuit Behaviours Following Breakups in Young Adulthood. Journal of Relationships Research10.
Frostadottir, A. D., & Dorjee, D. (2019). Effects of Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) and Compassion Focused Therapy (CFT) on Symptom Change, Mindfulness, Self-Compassion and Rumination in Clients with Depression, Anxiety and Stress. Frontiers in psychology10, 1099.
Furman, W., & Schaffer, L. (2003). The role of romantic relationships in adolescent development. In P. Florsheim (ed.), Adolescent romantic relations and sexual behavior: Theory, research, and practical implications (pp. 3–22). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ghasemi, N., goudarzi, M., ghazanfari, F. (2019). The Effectiveness of compassion-based therapy on cognitive emotion regulation, Shame and Guilt-Proneness and mindfulness components in patients with mixed anxiety- depression disorder. Clinical Psychology Studies, 9(34), 145-166. [Parsian]
Gilbert, J., Stubbs, R., Gale, C., Gilbert, P., Dunk, L., & Thomson, L. (2014). A qualitative study of the understanding and use of ‘compassion focused coping strategies’ in people who suffer from serious weight difficulties. Journal of Compassionate Health Care,1(9), 1–10.
Gilbert, P. (2009). The Compassionate Mind: A New Approach to Life’s Challenges. Constable- Robinson.
Gilbert, P. (2010). Compassion focused therapy. London: Routledge
Gilbert, P. (2014). The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53, 6–41.
Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and selfcriticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13(6), 353-379.
Hadian S, Jabalameli S.(2019) the effectiveness of compassion –focused therapy (CFT) on rumination in students with sleep disorders: a quasi‐experimental research, before and after. Stud Med Sci.; 30 (2) :86-96 (Persian)
Hamidpour H, Dolatshai B, Pourshahbaz A, Dadkhah A. (2011). The efficacy of schema therapy in treating women's generalized anxiety disorder. Iranian journal of psychiatry and clinical psychology 2011; 16(4):420-31. [Parsian]
Hendy, H. M., Can, S. H., Joseph, L. G. and Scherer, C. R. (2013). University students leaving relationships (uslr): scale development and gender differences in decisions to leave romantic relationships, Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 46(3): 232-242
Heriot-Maitland, C., Vidal, J. B., Ball, S., & Irons, C. (2014). A compassionate-focused therapy group approach for acute inpatients: Feasibility, initial pilot outcome data, and recommendations. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53(1), 78-94.
Imrie, S., & Troop, N. A. (2012). A pilot study on the effects and feasibility of compassion-focused expressive writing in Day Hospice patients. Palliative & Supportive Care, 10(2), 115-122.
Irons, C, & Beaumont. E. (2017). The compassionate mind work book. Robinson published. London
Irons, C., & Lad, S. (2017). Using compassion focused therapy to work with shame and self-criticism in complex trauma. Australian Clinical Psychologist3(1), 1743.
Jazaieri, H., McGonigal, K., Jinpa, T., Doty, J., Gross, J., & Goldin, P. (2014). A randomized controlled trial of compassion cultivation training: Effects on mindfulness, affect, and emotion regulation. Motivation and Emotion, 38, 23–35.
Johnson, E. A., & O'Brien, K. A. (2013). Self-compassion soothes the savage ego-threat system: Effects on negative affect, shame, rumination, and depressive symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology32(9), 939-963.
Jung, C. G. (1955). Modern man in search of a soul. (W. S. Dell & C. F. Baynes, Trans.). Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
kamkari, K., & shokrzadeh, S. (2013). Psychometric of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2RF). Publications of Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch. [Parsian]
Kansky, J., Ruzek, E., & Allen, J. (2017). Observing adolescent relationships: Autonomy processes in parent, peer, and romantic partner interactions. In Autonomy in Adolescent Development (pp. 49-68). Psychology Press.
Krieger, T., Altenstein, D., Baettig, I., Doerig, N., & Holtforth, M. G. (2013). Self-compassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Behavior therapy, 44(3), 501-513
Krieger, T., Berger, T., & Grosse Holtforth, M. (2016). The relationship of self-compassion and depression: Cross-lagged panel analyses in depressed patients after outpatient therapy. Journal of affective disorders202, 39-45.
Leaviss, J., & Uttley, L. (2014). Psychotherapeutic benefits of compassion focused therapy: An early systematic review. Psychologic Medicine: Cambridge, 45(5), 927–945.
Lee, D., & James, S. (2011). The compassionate mind guide torecovering from trauma and PTSD. Oakland: New HarbingerPublications.
Lee, D., & James, S. (2013). The compassionate mind guider torecovering from trauma and PTSD: Using compassion-focusedtherapy to overcome flashbacks, shame, guilt and fear. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Lewandowski, G. W. Jr., & Bizzoco, N. M. (2007). Addition through subtraction: Growth following the dissolution of a low-quality relationship. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2, 40–54.
Lincoln, T. M. , Hohenhaus, F. , & Hartmann, M. (2013). Can Paranoid Thoughts be reduced by Targeting Negative Emotions and Self-Esteem? An Experimental Investigation of a Brief Compassion-Focused Intervention. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(2), 390–402.
MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A metaanalysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32, 545–552.
Mackintosh, K. (2016). Relationships between self-compassion, attachment and interpersonal problems in patients with mixed anxiety and depression.
Mansouri, A. (2009) Comparison of fear, obsession and rumination in patients with anxiety disorders, depression and normal subjects. Master's thesis. Tabriz: Tabriz University. [Persian].
Mongrain, M., Chin, J., & Shapira, L. (2011). Practicing compassion increases happiness and self-esteem. Journal of Happiness Studies, 12, 963–981.
Monteiro, F., Fonseca, A., Pereira, M., Alves, S., & Canavarro, M. C. (2019). What protects at-risk postpartum women from developing depressive and anxiety symptoms? The role of acceptance-focused processes and self-compassion. Journal of affective disorders, 246, 522-529.
Moore, S., Leung, C., Karnilowicz, W., & Lung, C.-L. (2012). Characteristics and predictors of romantic relationships in late adolescence and young adulthood in Hong Kong and Australia. AustraliaPsychologist, 47, 108–117.
Mouchan, R., Bahmani, B., & Askari, A. (2016). The Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Reducing Symptoms of Emotional Breakdown. Health Sciences5(9S), 1-11. [Parsian]
Najjarpoor Mohammadabadi, E., Ghanbari Hashemabadi, B., Mazaheri, M. (2017). The effectiveness of brief object relations psychotherapy on reduction of interpersonal sensitivity, interpersonal awareness and need for approval of individuals with avoidant personality syndrome. Counseling Culture and Psycotherapy, 8(31), 79-104.
Nateghian, S., Sepehri Shamloo,Z., Salehi, F., J., Mashhadi., A (2018). Clinical Trial of Frontal Alpha Asymmetry Neurofeedback for the Improvement Executive Functions and the Reduction of Rumination in Reactive Depression Result of Love Trauma, Journal of Cognitive Psycholog, 6(2), 31-40
Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85-102.
Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. K. (2013). A pilot study and randomized controlled trial of the mindful self-compassion program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69, 28–44.
Neff, K., Hsieh, Y., & Digiterati, K. (2005). Self-compassion, achievement goals and coping with academic failure. Self and Identity, 4, 263–287.
Nikoogoftar, M. Sangani, A. Ahmadi, A. Ramak, N. (2018). Effectiveness of Logo-therapy in the Hutzel Method on Personality State, Love Trauma and Attitudes to the Opposite Sex in Female Students with Emotional Breakdown Experience, Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 8(30), 103-116. [Parsian]
Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Davis, C. G. (1999). “Thanks for sharing that”: Ruminators and their social support networks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 801–814.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed anxiety/depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 504–511
Noorbala F, Borjali A, Noorbala A A. The interaction effect between. (2013). “Self-Compassion” and “Rumination” of depressed patients in “Compassion Focused Therapy”. DMed.; 20 (1) :77-84 [Persian].
Noormohamadi, S. M., Arefi, M., Afshaini, K., & Kakabaraee, K. (2019). The effect of acceptance and commitment therapy on the mental health of students with an emotional breakdown. International journal of adolescent medicine and health. [Parsian]
Pepping, C., Lyons, A., McNair, R., Kirby, J., Petrocchi, N., & Gilbert, P. (2017). A tailored compassion-focused therapy program for sexual minority young adults with depressive symptomology: A study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychology, 5(5), 1–7.
Raes, F. (2010). Rumination and worry as mediators of the relationship between self-compassion and depression and anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences48(6), 757-761.
Rajabi, S., & Nikpoor, N. (2018). Comparison of the effectiveness of the transactional analysis training and emotion regulation on the improvement of love trauma syndrome: Dealing with the problems caused by the separation and love break up. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy20(4), 17-28. [Parsian]
Rajabi, S., alimoradi, K. (2018). Effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy on self-concept clarity, depression, anxiety and stress, and self-esteem in students with Love trauma syndrome. Journal Psychological Studies, 14(3), 131-146. doi: 10.22051/psy.2018.16644.1462 [Parsian]
Rosse, R. B. (1999). The love trauma syndrome: free yourself from the pain of a broken.
shariati, M., Hamid, N., Hashemi ShaykhShabani, E., beshlideh, K., Marashi, A. (2017). The Effectiveness of Compassion Focused Therapy on Depression and Self Criticism of Female University Students. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 17(1), 43-50. [Parsian]
Smith, J. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical psychology review29(2), 116-128.
Steindl, S. R., Matos, M., & Creed, A. K. (2018). Early shame and safeness memories, and later depressive symptoms and safe affect: The mediating role of self-compassion. Current Psychology, 1-11.
Stellar, J., Oveis, C., Cohen, A., & Keltner, D. (2015). Effective and physiological responses to the suffering of others: Compassion and vagal activity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 108(4), 572–588.
Stuntzner, S. (2017). Compassion and self-compassion: Conceptualization of and application to disability. Journal of Applied Rehabilitation Counseling, 48(2), 15–25.
Svendsen, J. L., Kvernenes, K. V., Wiker, A. S., & Dundas, I. (2017). Mechanisms of mindfulness: Rumination and self-compassion. Nordic Psychology69(2), 71-82
Tashiro, T. Y., & Frazier, P. (2003). “I’ll never be in a relationship like that again”: Personal growth following romantic relationship breakups. Personal Relationships, 10(1), 113–128.
Tavasoli, Z., Aghamohammadin Sherbaf, H. R., Sepehri Shamloo, Z., & Shahsavari, M. (2018). Effectiveness of group Reality Therapy on love trauma syndrome and overall function of people who failed emotionally. Journal of Applied Psychology12(1), 83-102. [Parsian]
Tomlinson, E. R., Yousaf, O., Vittersø, A. D. and Jones. L. (2018). Dispositional mindfulness and psychological health: A systematic review, Mindfulness, 9(1):23-43
Wrape, E. R., Jenkins, S. R., Callahan, J. L., & Nowlin, R. B. (2016). Emotional and cognitive coping in relationship dissolution. Journal of College Counseling19(2), 110-123.
Zhang, J. W., & Chen, S. (2017). Self-compassion promotes positive adjustment for people who attribute responsibility of a romantic breakup to themselves. Self and Identity16(6), 732-759.