هنجاریابی پرسشنامه احساس شکست و ارتباطش با ناامیدی و افسردگی در میان دانشجویان دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد مشاوره مدرسه، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران

2 استادیار گروه مشاوره، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران

3 استاد روانشناسی دانشگاه استوکتن، ایالت نیوجرسی، ایالات‌متحده آمریکا

چکیده

نظریه جایگاه اجتماعی نظریه‌ای در مورد افسردگی و رفتارهای منجر به خودکشی است. الگوی نظریه مذکور احساس شکست و احساس ناکامی در حیوانات است؛ که درنهایت منجر به افسردگی آنان می‌شود. بر این اساس، گیلبرت و آلن (1998) پرسشنامه‌ای را برای سنجش احساس شکست ابداع نموده‌اند.
پژوهش حاضر به‌منظور هنجاریابی اکتشافی پرسشنامه احساس شکست و بررسی روایی و پایایی آن در بین دانشجویان دانشگاه علامه انجام‌شده است. نمونه‌ای مشتمل بر 306 نفر (102 مرد و 204 زن) از دانشجویان به روش تصادفی انتخاب شدند. تحلیل عاملی اکتشافی با چرخش واریماکس بکار گرفته شد؛ همچنین به‌منظور محاسبه روایی همگرا از پرسشنامه‌های ناامیدی و افسردگی بک استفاده شد. اگرچه نسخه اصلی پرسشنامه بدون خرده مقیاس است، پژوهش حاضر وجود سه عامل به نام‌های "احساس رکود"، "احساس بازندگی" و "احساس رضایتمندی" را نشان می‌دهد. درمجموع این سه عامل قادر به تبیین حدود 63% از واریانس کل هستند. ضریب پایایی روش آلفای کرونباخ برای کل آزمودنی‌ها 91/0، در جامعه زنان 91/0 و مردان 92/0 به دست آمد. همچنین همبستگی بالایی بین پرسشنامه‌های ناامیدی و افسردگی بک با پرسشنامه احساس شکست و نیز سه خرده مقیاس آن به دست آمد. بر اساس نتایج پژوهش، مقیاس احساس شکست از روایی و پایایی مناسبی در میان دانشجویان ایرانی برخوردار است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Exploratory Factor analysis of the Defeat Scale and its Relationship with Depression and Hopelessness among Iranian University Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdieh Tarsafi 1
  • Seyed Mohammad Kalantar Kousheh 2
  • David Lester 3
1 MA in School Counseling, Department of Counseling, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Science, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran
2 Assistant Professor at Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran-Iran
3 Professor of Psychology, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey, USA
چکیده [English]

Social rank theory is a theory of depression and suicidal behavior based on animal models of defeat and entrapment which, in animals result in depressive-type behavior. Gilbert and Allan (1998) have devised a scale to measure defeat. This goal of the present study was to explore the validity and reliability of the Defeat Scale with students of Allameh Tabataba'i University.
A sample of 306 (102 male and 204 female) students was selected using simple random sampling. An exploratory factor analysis with varimax rotation was employed. Beck’s hopelessness and depression scales were used to examine convergent validity. Even though the original scale of the questionnaire was published without subscales, the results of the present research identified three subscales labeled inactivity, loser and satisfaction. Together, these three factors explained 63% of the variance of the matrix of item-correlations. The internal consistency using Cronbach’s alpha was 0.91 overall, 0.91 in females, and 0.92 in males. There were significant correlations between Beck’s hopelessness and depression scale scores with scores on the defeat and with the three factor scores. The Defeat Scale has good reliability and validity in Persian culture. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Defeat
  • Depression
  • reliability
  • validity
  • hopelessness
  • Social Rank theory

 

 

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