کشف جهان اجتماعی بیماری روانی، بازنگری در ماهیت بیماری روانی و تاکید بر ساخت زبانی آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

زمینه: روان شناسی فرهنگی حوزه جدیدی است شامل نسخه‌ی جهان شمول بین- فرهنگی که از گفتمان خاص تاریخی و فرهنگی مشتق شده است. آسیب شناسی روانی فرهنگی از زمان بازنگری مهم کلاینمن (1988)، با هدف به روز کردن بازنگری‌های گذشته، ارزیابی مفهوم سازی‌ها و روش‌های جاری و تشخیص گرایش‌های شاخص، پیشرفت‌های مفهومی به ویژه تحولاتی در تعریف فرهنگ و بررسی هم جریان‌های خاص و هم جریان‌های عام فرهنگ، سهم فرهنگ در تشخیص برایDSM-V و گزارش سازمان جهانی بهداشت روانی، مورد بررسی مجدد و مقایسه قرار گرفته و به مواردی از بیماری‌ها از جمله افسردگی و اسکیزوفرنی اشاره شده است.
هدف: هدف از پژوهش حاضر بیان این مطلب است که بیماری روانی ساخت زبانی دارد و آن را به منزله موضوع و مساله فرهنگی مورد بررسی قرار داده است.
روش: روش پژوهش تحلیل گفتمان است. تحلیل گفتمان به منزله روش پژوهش کیفی، زبان و سخن را مورد واکاوی قرار می‌دهد. واحد تحلیل گفتمان روایت است. روایت متنی است فرهنگی، نظریه‌ای علمی یا کنشی اجتماعی. در تحلیل گفتمان با تحلیل زبان و سخن و تفسیر دیدگاه‌ها و نظریه‌ها، پژوهشگر تلاش می‌کند روایت زیر ساخت آنها را مورد بازشناسی قرار دهد. تحلیلگر با بررسی و تحلیل الگوهای گفتمانی، الگوهایی که به هنگام به کارگیری منابع گفتمانی خلق می‌شوند، در صدد آن است تا منابع تشابه و تفاوت را بازشناسی کند.
نتایج: در سال‌های اخیر پژوهش‌های آسیب شناسی روانی فرهنگی تبدیل به عاملی مهم شده است. در روان شناسی فرهنگی و آسیب شناسی روانی فرهنگی مهمترین مساله آگاه شدن از تعریف فرهنگ به عنوان گفتمان و نقش آن در تعریف و تبیین و تعیین بیماری روانی است. . تمرکز آسیب شناسی روانی فرهنگی  بر زبان و ساخت جهان اجتماعی زبان است. و در سایه نقش آفرینی زبان است که می‌توان به مفهوم یکپارچه‌ای از بیماری روانی به منزله یک ساخت اجتماعی و فرهنگی دست پیدا کرد.
بحث و نتیجه گیری: هدف غایی آسیب شناسی روانی فرهنگی کاستن از رنج و بهبود زندگی افراد است.  تعریف اصلاح شده ما از فرهنگ منجر به تحلیلی از نشانه‌ها و منابع آسیب شناسی روانی در سطوح متعدد فردی، خانوادگی، جامعه و سیستم اجتماعی گسترده‌تر شد که مورد نیاز برای این هدف می‌باشد. همچنین فرهنگ به عنوان فرایندی پویا، متغیر و گفتمانی در نظر گرفته می‌شود که زبان با نقش آفرینی در ساخت اجتماعی به آن شکل می‌دهد. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Discovering the Social World of Mental Illness: A Review of the Nature of Mental Illness and Emphasis on its Linguistic Structure

نویسنده [English]

  • hossein eskandari
. Assistant Professor, Allameh Tabataba’i University
چکیده [English]

Background: Cultural psychology is a new discipline covering a universalistic intercultural version derived from a specific historical and cultural discourse. Since Kleinman’s major revision (1988), cultural psychopathology has been reconsidered with the aim of updating the previous reviews, assessment of conceptualizations and current methods, recognition of index trends, conceptual progressions, particularly changes in the definition of culture, studying both specific and common culture trends, the role of culture in psychiatric diagnosis for DSM-V and the World Health Organization report. In the new version, some cases of diseases such as depression and schizophreniaare included.
Objective: The present research aims to show that mental illness is of a linguistic structure and study the illness as a cultural issue.
Method: The method applied in this research wasthat of discourse analysis. Discourse analysis, as a method of qualitative research, analyzes language and speech. The module of discourse analysis is narrative. A narrative is a cultural text, or scientific theory or social act. In discourse analysis, the researcher tries to recognize the underlying narratives of discourses through analyzing language and speech as well as interpreting approaches and theories. Studying discourse patterns created during usage of discursive resources, the analyst aims to identify the sources of similarities and differences.
Results: In recent years, research on cultural psychopathology has turned to an important area of study. The most important issue in cultural psychology and cultural psychopathology is to become aware of the definition of culture as specific discourse, and its role in in defining, clarifying and specifying mental illnesses. Cultural psychopathology focuses on language and the social global structure of language. It is in the light of language that we can reach to an integrated conceptualization of mental illness as a social and cultural construct.
Conclusion: The ultimate goal of cultural psychopathology is to reduce pain and to improve people’s lives. Our modified definition of culture led to an analysis of signs and resources of cultural psychopathology in various levels of individual, family, society, and the expanded social system ones, which are all required for reaching this aim. Furthermore, culture is considered as a dynamic, variable and discursive process that is formed by role-playing of language in the social construct. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Language
  • narrative
  • Metaphor
  • Culture
  • Mental disorders
  • Depressive Disorder
  • Schizophrenia Disorder
 
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