آموزش بازداری پاسخ، توانایی برنامه‌ریزی و سرعت پردازش به کودکان مبتلا‌به اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش‌فعالی: مقایسه رویکرد توانبخشی‌شناختی-‌حرکتی با دارو‌درمانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی دانشگاه سمنان

2 دانشیار علوم‌تربیتی دانشگاه سمنان

3 استادیار روان‌شناسی دانشگاه بجنورد

4 دانشیار روان‌شناسی بالینی دانشگاه سمنان

چکیده

اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش­فعالی به عنوان یک اختلال عصبی- رشدی، علاوه بر نشانه­های رفتاری خاص با نقص در کارکردهای شناختی همراه است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسه­ی اثربخشی دو رویکرد توانبخشی شناختی- حرکتی و دارو درمانی در بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش فعالی انجام شد. این یک مطالعه نیمه­ آزمایشی با سنجش­های پس­آزمون و پیگیری بود که در یک طرح یک­سر کور سه گروه را باهم مقایسه می­کرد. 48 کودک مبتلا به اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش فعالی به شیوه نمونه­گیری ملاکی انتخاب و بر اساس شدت اختلال همتا شده و به طور تصادفی به سه گروه توانبخشی شناختی- حرکتی (16 نفر)، دارو درمانی (16 نفر) و کنترل فعال (16 نفر) گمارده شدند. تمام شرکت­کنندگان توسط فرم کوتاه سه خردآزمونی هوش وکسلر کودکان- تجدیدنظرشده و آزمون­های رنگ-واژه استروپ، برج لندن و رمزنویسی وکسلر مورد آزمون قرارگرفتند و والدین آنها، این کودکان را با پرسشنامه علائم مرضی کودک-4 (CSI-4) رتبه­بندی نمودند. داده­ها با استفاده از تحلیل ورایانس چند متغیری و آزمون­های تی وابسته با تصحیح بن فرونی به عنوان آزمون­های تعقیبی، تحلیل شدند. توانبخشی شناختی حرکتی به طور معناداری منجر به تغییرات موثر و پایدار در عملکرد آزمودنی­ها در مولفه­های کارکرد اجرایی اعمّ از بازداری پاسخ، برنامه­ریزی و سرعت پردازش شد و تنها در مولفه سرعت پردازش، تغییرات ایجاده شده در مرحله پیگیری افت معنادار به سطوح پایین­تر را نشان داد. بعلاوه، با وجود عملکرد بهتر کودکان گروه توانبخشی شناختی- حرکتی نسبت به گروه دارودرمانی، تغییرات ایجاد شده به لحاظ آماری معنادار نبود. به طور کلی این یافته­ها بیانگر آن بود که توانبخشی شناختی- حرکتی رویکرد اثربخشی در درمان اختلال نارسایی‌توجه/بیش­فعالی است و می­توان از آن به عنوان یک فن­درمانی مکمل دارودرمانی استفاده کرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Response Inhibition, Planning Skills and Speed Processing Training for Children with ADHD: Comparison between Cognitive-Motor Rehabilitation and Drug Therapy Approaches

نویسندگان [English]

  • Saeed Azami 1
  • Siavash Talepasand 2
  • Morteza Nazifi 3
  • Es’hagh Rahimian Boogar 4
1 Ph. D. Candidate of Psychology, Semnan University
2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Semnan University, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Darband, Mahdishahr
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Bojnord
4 Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Psychology, Semnan University.
چکیده [English]

Attention Deficit/ Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD), as a neurodevelopmental disorder, accompanied not only with some special behavioral symptoms, but also deficits in cognitive functioning. Current research aimed to compare the effectiveness in improving executive functions (EF) in children with ADHD of cognitive-­motor rehabilitation (CMR) and drug therapy approaches. This was a semi-experimental study with post-test and follow-up assessments, comparing three groups in a single-blind design. 48 ADHD children were selected using criterion sampling, matched for ADHD severity, and randomly assigned to either cognitive-­motor rehabilitation (n= 16), drug therapy (n= 16) and active control (n=16) groups. All the participants were tested by Stroop color-word, Tower of London (TOL), Wechsler Coding tests, and a 3 sub-scale short-form of the WISC-R tests, and their parents rated them on child syndrome inventory-4 (CSI-4). The data were analyzed using MANOVA and paired t-tests with Bonferroni corrections as post hoc tests. CMR showed effective and enduring effects on the participants' performance on EF components including response inhibition, planning, and speed processing and only the improvements in speed processing returned significantly to lower levels at follow-up. In addition, despite the better performance of CMR group compared to drug therapy group, the changes were not statistically significant. Altogether, the results indicate that CMR is an effective approach in the treatment of ADHD, and it can be used as a complementary technique to drug therapy.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD)
  • Cognitive-Motor Rehabilitation (CMR)
  • Drug Therapy
  • Executive Function
اعظمی، سعید.، مقدس، علیرضا.، سهرابی، فرامرز. (1392). مقایسه تاثیر توانبخشی رایانه­یار و داروی روان­محرک در بازداری پاسخ و توجه­پایدار کودکان دارای اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش­فعالی. فصلنامه افراد استثنایی، 3(11): 21-39.
اهرمی، راضیه.، فرامرزی، سالار.، شوشتری، مژگان.، عابدی، احمد. (1391). رابطه­ی نیمرخ دانش­آموزان در هوش­آزمای وکسلر کودکان فرم 4 (WISC-IV) و هوش چندگانه (MI) مبتنی بر نظریه گاردنر. فصلنامه اندازه­گیری تربیتی، 9(3): 43-64.
برجعلی، محمود.، علیزاده، حمید.، احدی، حسن.، فرخی، نورعلی.، سهرابی، فرامرز.، محمدی، محمدرضا. (1393). مقایسه تاثیر روش­های آموزش دلگرم­سازی، رفتاری و دارو درمانی بر مهارت­های خودکنترلی در کودکان با اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش‌فعالی. فصلنامه مطالعات روانشناسی بالینی، 4(16): 153-175.
زارع بهرام­آبادی، مهدی.، گنجی، کامران. (1393). بررسی شیوع اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش­فعالی و همبودی آن با اختلال یادگیری در دانش­آموزان دبستانی. مجله ناتوانی­های یادگیری، 3(4): 25-43.
شهیم، سیما. (1373). بررسی فرم­های کوتاه مقیاس وکسلر کودکان برای استفاده در ایران. مجله علوم اجتماعی و انسانی، 9(2): 67-70.
صفری، هادی.، آقایی، حدیث.، نظیفی، مرتضی.، اعظمی، سعید. (1392). مقایسه کارکردهای اجرایی و شاخص­های رفتاری در کودکان دارا و بدون اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش­فعالی. ششمین سمپوزیوم نوروپسیکولوژی ایران، تهران.
عابدی­شاپورآبادی، ثریا.، پورمحمدرضای­تجریشی، معصومه.، محمدخانی، پروانه. (1391). اثربخشی برنامه گروهی والدگری مثبت بر نشانه­های اختلال بیش­فعالی/ نارسایی توجه در کودکان. توانبخشی، 13(5): 38-48.
علیلو، محمود.، حمیدی، صمد.، شیروانی، امیر. (1390). مقایسه کارکردهای اجرایی و توجه پایدار در دانشجویان دارای علایم وسواسی- اجباری، اسکیزوتایپی بالا و علایم همپوش با گروه بهنجار. مجله تحقیقات علوم رفتاری، 9(3): 216- 221.
مشهدی، علی.، رسول­زاده­طباطبایی، کاظم.، آزادفلاح، پرویز.، سلطانی­فر، عاطفه. (1388). مقایسه بازداری پاسخ و کنترل تداخل در کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نارسایی توجه/ بیش فعالی و کودکان بهنجار. مجله روانشناسی، 1(2): 37-50.
نجفی، محمود.، فولادچنگ، محبوبه.، علیزاده، حمید.، محمدی­فر، محمدعلی. (1388). میزان شیوع اختلال کاستی توجه و بیش­فعالی، اختلال سلوک و اختلال نافرمانی مقابله‌ای در دانش­آموزان دبستانی. پژوهش در حیطه کودکان استثنایی، 9(3): 239-254.
American Academy of Pediatrics. (2011). ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 128: 1007-22.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. (5th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Azami, S., Moghadas, AR., Najafi, M., Sohrabi, F., Mir Mohammad, M., Hemmati, F., Ahmadi, A., Hamzeh-Poor, P., Khari, S., & Lakes, K. (2016). A Pilot Randomized-Controlled Trial Comparing Computer-Assisted Cognitive Rehabilitation, Stimulant Medication, and an Active Control in the Treatment of ADHD. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 21(4): 217-224. Doi: 10.1111/camh.12157
Bailey, K.E. (2009). The Impact of Physical Activities on Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder’s Ability to Focus. Unpublished Master Dissertation, USA: Ohio University.
Banich, M.T. (2009). Executive Function: The search for an integrated account. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 89–94.
Barbaresi, W.J., Katusic, S.K., Colligan, R.C., Weaver, A.L., Leibson, C.L., & Jacobsen, S.J. (2006). Long-term stimulant medication treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Results from a population-based study. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 1-10. Doi: 10.1097/00004703-200602000-00001
Barkley R.A. (2006). Etiologies. In R.A. Barkley (Ed.). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York: Guilford Press.
Berwid, O.G., & Halperin, J.M. (2012). Emerging support for a role of exercise in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder intervention planning. Current Psychiatry Reports, 14, 543-551.
Best, J.R. (2010). Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: Contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Developmental Review, 30, 331-351.
Biedermana, J., Mick, E., Fried, R., Wilner, N., Spencer, T.J., & Faraon, S.V. (2010). Are stimulants effective in the treatment of executive function deficits? Results from a randomized double blind study of OROS-methylphenidate in adults with ADHD. European Neuro psychopharmacology, 21, 508–515.
Campbell, N.G. (2003). The central Auditory Processing and Continuous Performance of children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) [Dissertation]. Pretoria: University of Pretoria.
Castellanos, F.X., Lee, P.P., Sharp, W., Jeffries, N.O., Greenstein, D.K., Clasen, L.S., et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. JAMA, 288, 1740–1748.
Castellanos, F.X., Sonuga-Barke E., Milham M., & Tannock, R. (2006). Characterizing cognition in ADHD: Beyond executive dysfunction. Trends in Cognitive Science, 10, 117–123.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., Van Patter, M., Voss, M.W., Pontifex, M.B., et al. (2010). Basal ganglia volume is associated with aerobic fitness in preadolescent children. Dev Neurol, 32, 249-56.
Chaddock, L., Erickson, K.I., Prakash, R.S., Voss, M.W., Van Patter, M., Pontifex, M.B., et al. (2012). A functional MRI investigation of the association between childhood aerobic fitness and neurocognitive control. Biol Psychol, 89, 260-8.
Chan, R.C.K., Shum, D., Toulopoulou T., & Chen, EYH. (2008). Assessment of executive functions: review of instruments and identification of critical issues. Arch Clin Neuro psych, 23, 201-216.
Chang, Y.K., Chu, I.H., Chen, F.T., & Wang, C.C. (2011). Dose-response effect of acute resistance exercise on Tower of London in middle-aged adults. J Sport Exerc Psy, 33, 866.
Chang, Y.K., Labban, J.D., Gapin, J.I., & Etnier, J.L. (2012). The effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance: a meta-analysis. Brain Res, 14(53): 87-01.
Chang, Y.K., Liu, S., Yu, H.H., & Lee Y.H. (2012). Effect of acute exercise on executive function in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Clin Neuro Psych, 27, 225-37.
Chang, Y.K., Tsai, C.L., Hung, T.M., So, E.C., & Chen, F.T., & Etnier J.L. (2011). Effects of acute exercise on executive function: a study with a tower of London task. J Sport Exerc Psychol., 33:847.
Churchill, J.D., Galvez, R., Colcombe, S., Swain, R.A., Kramer, A.F., & Greenough, W.T. (2002). Exercise, experience and the aging brain. Neurobiology of Aging, 23(5): 941–955.
Conners, C.K., (2002). Forty years of methylphenidate treatment in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. J. Atten. Disord, 6(1): 17–30.
Connor, D.F. (2006). Stimulants. In Barkley, R. A. (Ed.), Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A handbook for diagnosis and treatment (3rd ed., pp. 608-648). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Crosbie, J., & Arnold, P., Paterson, A., Swanson, J., Dupuis, A., Li, X., Shan, J., Goodale, T., Tam, C., & Strug, L.J., & Schachar, R.J. (2013). Response Inhibition and ADHD Traits: Correlates and Heritability in a Community Sample. J Abnorm Child Psychol, 41(1): 497-507. DOI 10.1007/s10802-012-96939.
Davidson, D.J., Zacks, R.T., & Williams C.C. (2003). Stroop Interference, practice and aging. Aging Neuropsychology and Cognition, 10, 85-98.
Davidson, M.C., Amso, D., Anderson, L.C., & Diamond, A. (2006). Development of cognitive control and executive functions from 4 to 13 years: evidence from manipulations of memory, inhibition, and task switching. Neuro Psychologica, 44, 2037–78.
Dawson, P. & Guare, R. (2004). Executive skills in children and adolescents: A practical guide to assessment and intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
Durston, S., Hulshoff Pol, H.E., Schnack, H.G., Buitelaar, J.K., Steenhuis, M.P., Minderaa, R.B., et al. (2004). Magnetic resonance imaging of boys with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder and their unaffected siblings. Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 332–340.
Durston, S., Tottenham, N.T., Thomas, K.M., Davidson, M.C., Eigsti, I.M., Yang, Y., et al. (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biol. Psychiatry, 53, 871–878.
Epstein, J.N., Langberg, J.M., Lichtenstein, P.K., Altaye, M., Brinkman, W.B., House, K., & Stark, L.J. (2010). Attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder outcomes for children treated in community-based pediatric settings. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(2), 160. Doi: 10.1001/arch pediatrics. 2009.263
Etnier, J.L., Salazar, W., Landers, D.M., Petruzzello, S.J., Han, M., & Nowell, P. (1997). The influence of physical fitness and exercise upon cognitive functioning: a meta-analysis. J Sport Exerc Psychol., 19, 249-77.
Gapin, J. (2009). Association among Physical Activity, ADHD Symptoms, and Executive Function in Children with ADHD. [Dissertation]. Greensboro: University of North Carolina.
Gapin, J.I., Labban, J.D., & Etnier, J.L. (2011). The effects of physical activity on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: The evidence. Preventive Medicine, 52, S70-S74.
Geurts, H.M., Verte, S., Oosterlaan, J., Roeyers, H., & Sergeant, J.A. (2005). ADHD Subtypes: do they differ in their executive functioning profile? Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20(4): 457-477.
Grassmann, V., Alves, M.V., Santos-Galduro´z, R.F., & Galduro´z, J.C.F. (2014). Possible cognitive benefits of acute physical exercise in children with ADHD a systematic review. J Atten Disord., Doi: 1087054714526041.
Halperin, J.M. & Healey, D.M. (2011). The influences of environmental enrichment, cognitive enhancement, and physical exercise on brain development: Can we alter the developmental trajectory of ADHD? Review Article. Neuroscience and Bio behavioral Reviews, 35, 621–634.
Harvey, B. & Simon, M.D. (2006). The No Sweat Exercise Plan: lose weight, get healthy, and live longer. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hauth–Charlier, S., & Clement, C. (2009). Behavioral parent training programs for parent of children with ADHD: Practical consideration and clinical implication. Practiques Psychologyques, 15, 223-234.
Helpern, J.A., Adisetiyo, V., Falangola, M.F., Hu, C., Di Martino, A., Williams, K., et al. (2011). Preliminary evidence of altered gray and white matter microstructural development in the frontal lobe of adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusional kurtosis imaging study. J Magn Reson Imaging, 33, 17-23.
Hillman, C.H., Pontifex, M.B., Raine, L.B., Castelli, D.M., Hall, E.E., & Kramer, A.F. (2009). The effect of acute treadmill walking on cognitive control and academic achievement in preadolescent children. Neuroscience, 159, 1044-1054.
Jacobson, L.A., Ryan, M., Martin, R.B., Ewen, J., Mostofsky, S.H., Denckla, M.B., & Mahone, E.M. (2011). Working Memory Influences Processing Speed and Reading Fluency in ADHD. Child Neuropsychol, 17(3): 209–224. doi:10.1080/09297049.2010.532204
Klingberg, T. (2010). Training and plasticity of working memory. Trends in Cognitive Science, 14, 317–324.
Kobel, M., Bechtel, N., Weber, P., Specht, K., Klarhöfer, M., Scheffler, K., et al. (2009). Effects of methylphenidate on working memory functioning in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. European Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 13, 516–523.
Krikorian, R., Bartok, J., & Gay, N. (1994). Tower of London procedure: A standard method and developmental data. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 16(6): 840-850.
Lakes, K.D., Bryars, T., Sirisinahal, S., Salim, N., Arastoo, S., Emmerson, N., Kang, D., Shim, L., Wong D., & Kang, Ch.J. (2013). Healthy for Life Taekwondo Pilot Study: A Preliminary Evaluation of Effects on Executive Function and BMI, Feasibility, and Acceptability. Ment Health Phys Act., 6(3): 181–188. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2013.07.002.
Langberg, J.M., & Becker, S. P. (2012). Does long-term medication use improve the academic outcomes of youth with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder? Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 15, 215-233. Doi: 10.1007/s10567-012-0117-8.
Lawrence, V., Houghton, S., Tannock, R., Douglas, G., Durkin, K., & Whiting, K. (2002). ADHD outside the laboratory: Boys' executive function performance on tasks in videogame play and on a visit to the zoo. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 447-462.
Lenz, T.L. (2012). A pharmacological/physiological comparison between ADHD medications and exercise. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 6, 306-308.
Lipszyc, J., & Schachar, R. (2010). Inhibitory Control and Psychopathology: A meta-analysis of studies using the Stop Signal Task. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 16(6): 1–13.
Martel, M., Nikolas, M., & Nigg, J.T. (2007). Executive Function in Adolescents with ADHD. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(11): 1437-1444. [Abstract].
Medina, J.A., Netto, T.L.B, Muszkat, M., Medina, A.C., Botter, D., Orbetelli, R., et al. (2010). Exercise impact on sustained attention of ADHD children, methylphenidate effects. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord., 2, 49-58.
Mick, E., & Faraone, S.V. (2008). Genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric, 17, 261- 284.
Mostofsky, S.H. & Simmonds, D.J. (2008). Response inhibition and response selection: two sides of the same coin. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20(5): 751–761. [PubMed: 18201122]
Mrug, S., Molina B.S.G., Hoza, B., Gerdes, A.C., Hinshaw, S.P., Hechtman, L., & Arnold, L.E. (2012). Peer rejection and friendships in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Contributions to long-term outcomes. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 1013-26. Doi: 10.1007/ s10802-012-9610-2
Nagel, M. (2005). Physical Education Intervention for Children with ADHD (Health). National Association of Child Development, Ogden, UT. Retrieved August 28, 2010 from http://aahperd. confex. com/ aahperd/ 2005/ preliminaryprogram/ abstract_6422. htm
Nigg, J.T., (2006). What causes ADHD? Understanding what goes wrong and why. New York: Guilford Press.
Orban, S.A., Rapport, M.D., Friedman, L.M., & Kofler, M.J. (2014). Executive Function/Cognitive Training for Children with ADHD: Do Results Warrant the Hype and Cost? The ADHD Report, 22(8): 8-14. doi: 10.1521/adhd.2014.22.8.8
Ortiz-Becher, M. (2004). Neurocognitive rehabilitation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A program design. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Carlos Albizu University.
Phelps, E.A. & Le, Doux, J.E. (2005). Contributions of the amygdala to motion processing: From animal models to human behavior. Neuron, 48, 175-187. doi: 10. 1016/j. neuron. 2005.09.025
Piepmeier, A.T., Shih, CH., Whedon, M., Williams, L.M., Davis, M.E., Henning, D.A., Park, S., Calkins, S.D., & Etnier, J.L. (2015). The effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in children with and without ADHD. Journal of Sport and Health Science, 4: 97-04.
Pontifex, M.B., Saliba, B.J., Raine, L.B., Picchietti, D.L., Hillman, C.H. (2013). Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatric, 162, 543-51.
Rapport, N.D., Bolden, J., Kofler, M.J., Sarver, D.E., Raiker, J.S., & Alderson, M.R. (2009). Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): A ubiquitous core symptom or manifestation of working memory deficits? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 521-534.
Rhodes, S.M., Coghill, D. R., & Matthews, K. (2006). Acute neuropsychological effects of methylphenidate in stimulant drug-naïve boys with ADHD II—Broader executive and non-executive domains. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47, 1184–1194.
Scheres, A., Oosterlaan, J., Geurts, H., Morein-Zamir, S.H., Merian, N., Schut, H., Vlasaveld, L., & Sergeant, J. (2004). Executive function in boys with ADHD: primarily an inhibition deficit? Clinical Neuropsychology, 19(4): 569-594.
Senderecka, M., Grabowska, A., Szewczyk, J., Gerc, K., & Chmylak, R. (2012). Response inhibition of children with ADHD in the stop-signal task: An event-related potential study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 85, 93–105.
Shaffer, R.J., Jacokes, L.E., Cassily, J.F., Greenspan, S.I., Tuchman, R.F., & Stemmer, P.J. (2000). Effect of interactive metronome training on children with ADHD. The American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 55, 155–62.
Sibley, B.A., & Etnier, J.L. (2003). The relationship between physical activity and cognition in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 15, 243-56.
Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2003). The Dual pathway model of AD/HD: an elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Journal of Neuroscience & Bio Behavioral Reviews, 27(7): 593–604.
Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2005). Causal models of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: From common simple deficits to multiple developmental pathways. Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1231-1238.
Sonuga-Barke, E.J., & Castellanos, F.X. (2007). Spontaneous attentional fluctuations in impaired states and pathological conditions: a neurobiological hypothesis. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev., 31(7): 977-86.
Sonuga-Barkley, E.J., Daley D., & Thompson, M. (2001). Parent based therapies for preschool attention deficit/hyperactive disorder: A randomized controlled trial with a community sample. J AM ACAD CHILD PSY, 40 (4): 402-408.
Sowell, E.R., Thompson, P.M., Welcome, S.E., Henkenius, A.L., Toga, A.W., & Peterson, B.S. (2003). Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet, 362, 1699–1707.
Stevens, J.P. (2007). Intermediate Statistics: A Modern Approach (3rded). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Swanson, J.M., Baler, R.D., & Volkow, N.D. (2011). Understanding the effects of stimulant medications on cognition in individuals with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A decade of progress. Neuro Psychopharmacology, 36, 207-26. doi:10.1038/npp.2010.160
Tomporowski, P.D., & McCullick, B. (2009). The effects of physical activity and direct instruction on children’s executive functions: Pre-requisites and considerations. Unpublished manuscript.
Toplak, M.E., Conners, L., Shuster, J., Knezevic, B., & Parks, S. (2008). Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 801-823.
Valera, E.M., Faraone, S.V., Biederman, J., Poldrack, R.A., & Seidman, L.J. (2005). Functional neuroanatomical of working memory in adults with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Biol. Psychiatry, 57, 439–447.
Van der Oord, S., Prins, P.J., Oosterlaan, J., & Emmelkamp, P.M. (2008). Efficacy of methylphenidate, psychosocial treatments and their combination in school-aged children with ADHD: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 783-800. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.007
Verburgh, L., Konigs, M., Scherder, E.J., & Oosterlaan, J. (2014). Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48, 973-979.
Verret, C., Guay, M. C., Berthiaume, C., Gardiner, P., & Beliveau, L.A. (2012). Physical activity program improves behavior and cognitive functions in children with ADHD: an exploratory study. J Atten Disord, 16, 71-80.
Visser, S.N., Danielson, M.L., Bitsko, R.H., Holbrook, J.R., Kogan, M D., Ghandour, R.M., et al. (2014). Trends in the parent report of health care provider diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003-2011. J Am Acad Child Psy, 53, 34-46.
Vysniauske, R., Verburgh, L., Oosterlaan, J., & Molendijk, M.L. (2016). The Effects of Physical Exercise on Functional Outcomes in the Treatment of ADHD: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Attention Disorders, 1–11. DOI: 10.1177/1087054715627489] PMID: 26861158[
Wendt, M S. (2000). The effect of an activity program designed with intense physical exercise on the behavior of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, State University of New York at Buffalo.
Wigal, S.B., Emmerson, N., Gehricke, J.G., & Galassetti, P. (2013). Exercise: Applications to childhood ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17, 279-290.
Wigal, SH. B., Maltas, S., Crinella, F., Stehli, A., Steinhoff, K., Lakes, K., & Schuck, S. (2012). Reading Performance as a Function of Treatment With Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate in Elementary School Children Diagnosed With ADHD. J. of Att. Dis., 16(1): 23-33.
Willcutt, E.G., Doyle, A.E., Nigg, J.T., Faraone, S.V., & Pennington, B.F. (2005). Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A meta-analytic review. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1336–1346.
Willcutt, E.G., Pennington, B.F., Olson, R K., Chhabildas, N., & Hulslander, J. (2005). Neuropsychological analyses of comorbidity between reading disability and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: In search of the common deficit. Developmental Neuropsychology, 27, 35-78.
Ziereis, S., & Jansen, P. (2015). Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 38, 181–191.