اثربخشی برنامه ترکیبی والدگری ذهن‌آگاهانه و آموزش مدیریت والدین بر بهزیستی روانشناختی و شادکامی کودکان

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد خانواده‌درمانی، دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی، تهران، ایران

3 ریاست دانشکده روان شناسی و علوم تربیتی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه، کاربردی جدید از ذهن­آگاهی است که هدف آن بهبود بخشیدن به والدگری از طریق ارتقای کیفیت توجه والدینی و افزایش آگاهی هیجانی است. آموزش مدیریت والدین نیز بر افزایش کیفیت روابط بین والدین و فرزندان تأکید دارد و مستلزم یادگیری مهارت­های جدید جهت اصلاح رفتار کودکان است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی مقایسه اثربخشی برنامه­ی ترکیبی والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه و آموزش مدیریت والدین و آموزش مدیریت والدین به تنهایی بر بهزیستی روان­شناختی و شادکامی کودکانصورت گرفت. روش پژوهش از نوع آزمایشی در قالب طرح پیش­آزمون- پس­آزمون دوگروهی بود. جامعه­ی پژوهش حاضر را کلیه­ی کودکان پایه چهارم تا ششم دبستان­های واقع در منطقه 8 شهر قم در سال تحصیلی 96-95 به همراه مادرانشان، تشکیل می­دادند. نمونه­ی این پژوهش شامل 41 تن از کودکان پایه­های چهارم تا ششم دبستان به همراه مادرانشان بود که به شیوه­ی در دسترس از بین دبستان­های منطقه 8 انتخاب شده و به طریق تصادفی در دو گروه جای داده شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش در جمعیت مادران شامل برنامه­ی ترکیبی والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه و آموزش مدیریت والدین، پرسشنامه­ی چهار سوالی شادی و مقیاس ذهن­آگاهی بین­فردی در والدگری بود. مقیاس دایره­ای خلق و مقیاس بهزیستی روان­شناختی نیز ابزارهایی بودند که در گروه کودکان اجرا شدند. شرکت­کنندگان در سه مرحله پیش­آزمون، پس­آزمون و پیگیری به ابزارهای پژوهش پاسخ دادند. یکی از گروه­ها، برنامه­ی ترکیبی والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه و آموزش مدیریت والدین، و گروه دیگر فقط برنامه­ی آموزش مدیریت والدین را در 8 جلسه­ی 2 ساعته و به صورت یک جلسه در هر هفته دریافت کردند. نتایج تحلیل واریانس آمیخته نشان داد که برنامه­ی ترکیبی نسبت به برنامه آموزش مدیریت والدین در افزایش نمره­ی بهزیستی روانشناختی کودکان (01/0/P<57/7F=) مؤثرتر بوده است و این تغییرات در مرحله پیگیری نیز ثابت مانده­ است. اما در میزان شادکامی کودکان، بین دو گروه تفاوت معناداری به دست نیامد. اثربخشی بالاتر برنامه­ی ترکیبی نسبت به آموزش مدیریت والدین بر بهزیستی روان­شناختی را می­توان وابسته به کاربرد اصول والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه دانست. به نظر می­رسد والدگری ذهن­آگاهانه از طریق سازوکارهایی چون گوش­دادن با توجه کامل، پذیرش بدون قضاوت، شفقت­مندی، خودتنظیمی و آگاهی هیجانی منجر به ارتقای رابطه والد- کودک و به تبع آن افزایش بهزیستی روان­شناختی در کودکان می­گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Efficacy of Mindful Parenting and Parent Management Training Integrative Program on Psychological Wellbeing and Happiness of Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahboubeh Bagheri 1
  • karineh tahmassian 2
  • Mohammad Ali Mazaheri 3
2 shahid beheshti university, tehran, iran
چکیده [English]

Mindful Parenting is a new application of mindfulness which aims to improve parenting through promoting the quality of parental attention and emotional awareness. Parent Management Training also focuses on the quality of parent-child relationship and involves learning new skills in order to modify children's behavior. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of mindful parenting and parent management training integrative program and parent management training program on psychological wellbeing and happiness of children. The research method was experimental including pretest-posttest with a control group design. The study population included all children in fourth to sixth grade in District 8 of Qom city in 96-95 school year, accompanied by their mothers. The sample included 41 children from fourth to sixth grade accompanied by their mothers that were selected by convenient sampling and assigned in experimental and control groups by random sampling. Research tools used on mothers included the mindful parenting and parent management training integrative program, 4-item happiness questionnaire and interpersonal mindfulness in parenting. Circular Mood and psychological wellbeing scale were the tools that were used on children. Participants completed the research tools in three phases of pretest, posttest and follow up. One group received mindful parenting and parent management training integrative program, while another group received only parent management training in 8 sessions, each 2 hours per week at a meeting. Mixed analysis of variance showed that the integrative program was more effective than parent management training in psychological wellbeing (F=7/57/ P<0/01) and these changes remained constant in follow up phase.  There were no any differences between the two groups in happiness. Higher efficacy of integrative program in psychological wellbeing can be dependent upon application of mindful parenting principals. It seems that mindful parenting causes enrichment in parent- child relationship and consequently increases psychological well-being in children through mechanisms such as listening with full attention, accepting without judgment, compassion, self-regulation and emotional consciousness.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mindful Parenting
  • Parent Management Training
  • Psychological Wellbeing
  • Happiness
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