Integration of the Existed Knowledge on DMN: A Critical Review Study

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Ph.D. Candidate in Health Psychology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, e-mail: h.p209@yahoo.com

2 Associate Professor, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده

The default-mode network (DMN) is one of the human brain’s networks activated in resting and self-referential thinking states. The nature of this network and its normal or abnormal changes has been the subject of various studies. The aim of this study was to systematical review and integrating the findings of that studies focused on the relationship of DMN with mental disorders and aging-induced changes in it. Of the more than 100 evidences found, 32 studies in each of two specific subjects (psychopathologicaland aging-related changes of DMN) were selected and scientifically mentioned the most important results of them. Based on the findings, some of the mental disorders including major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Alzheimer disease are associated with functional or connectional abnormalities in DMN. Aging can cause functional changes in the activation or deactivation of the DMN’s regions or inter/intra-network connectivity of this network. Although most of studies have a pathological perspective on DMN changes; one article pointed out the positive role of DMN changes during aging in terms of emotion regulation.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Integration of the Existed Knowledge on DMN: A Critical Review Study

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hoda Purrezaian 1
  • Javad Hatami 2
1 PhD candidate in Health Psychology,Tehran University
2 Associate professor, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The default-mode network (DMN) is one of the human brain’s networks activated in resting and self-referential thinking states. The nature of this network and its normal or abnormal changes has been the subject of various studies. The aim of this study was to systematical review and integrating the findings of that studies focused on the relationship of DMN with mental disorders and aging-induced changes in it. Of the more than 100 evidences found, 32 studies in each of two specific subjects (psychopathological and aging-related changes of DMN) were selected and scientifically mentioned the most important results of them. Based on the findings, some of the mental disorders including major depression, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Alzheimer disease are associated with functional or connectional abnormalities in DMN. Aging can cause functional changes in the activation or deactivation of the DMN’s regions or inter/intra-network connectivity of this network. Although most of studies have a pathological perspective on DMN changes; one article pointed out the positive role of DMN changes during aging in terms of emotion regulation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Default Mode Network (DMN)
  • DMN’s subsystems
  • the functions of DMN’s subsystems
  • Psychopathological changes in DMN
  • Aging-related alterations of DMN

Andrews-Hanna, J. R. (2012). The brain’s default network and its adaptive role in internal mentation. Neuroscientist, 18(3), 251-270.

Anticevic, A., Cole, M. W., Murray, J. D., Corlett, P. R., Wang, X. J., & Krystal, J. H. (2012). The role of default network deactivation in cognition and disease. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(12), 584-592.

Apergis-Schoute,A. M., Bijleveld, B., Gillan,C. M., Fineberg,N. A., Sahakian, B. J., & Robbins,T. W. (2018). Hyper connectivity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain and Neuroscience Advances, 2, 1-10.

Beason-Held, L. L., Kraut, M. A., & Resnick, S. M. (2009). Stability of default-mode network activity in the aging brain. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 3(2), 123-131.

Berman, M. G., Peltier, S., Nee, D. E., Kross, E., Deldin, P. J., & Jonides, J. (2011). Depression, rumination and the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(5), 548-555.

Beucke, J. C., Sepulcre, J., Eldaief, M. C., Sebold, M., Kathmann, N., & Kaufmann, C. (2014). Default mode network subsystem alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 205(5), 376-382.

Broyd, S. J., Demanuele, C., Debener, S., Helps, S. K., James, C. J, & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2009). Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: A systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 279-296.

Buckner, R. L. (2013). The brain’s default network: Origins and implications for the study of psychosis. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15(3), 351-358.

Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 1-38.

Dai, Q., Yin, X., Huang, J., Li, H., Wang, J., & Feng, Z. (2018).Default model network mechanism in current and remitted depression. Neuropsychiatry (London), 8(1), 126-137.

Damoiseaux, J. S., Beckmann, C. F., Sanz Arigita, E. J., Barkhof, F., Scheltens, P., Stam, C. J., … & Rombouts, S. A. (2008). Reduced Resting-State Brain Activity in the ‘‘Default Network’’ in Normal Aging. Cerebral Cortex, 18(8), 1856-1864.

Damoiseaux, J. S., Prater, K. E., Miller, B. L., & Greicius, M. D. (2012). Functional connectivity tracks clinical deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(4), 19-30.

Davey, C. G., Pujol, J., & Harrison, B. J. (2016). Mapping the self in the brain's default mode network. NeuroImage, 132, 390-397.

Dennis,E. L., Gotlib,I. H., Thompson,P. M., & Thomason, M. E. (2011). Anxiety modulates insula recruitment in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in youth and adults. Brain Connectivity, 1(3), 245-254.

Doll, A., Hölzel, B. K., Boucard, C. C., Wohlschläger, A. M., & Sorg, C. (2015). Mindfulness is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity between default mode and salience networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 461. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00461.

Fan, J., Gan, J., Liu, W., Zhong, M., Liao, H., Zhang, H., …Zhu, X. (2018). Resting-state default mode network related functional connectivity is associated with sustained attention deficits in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 1-11.

Fingelkurts, A. A., Fingelkurts, A. A., & Kallio-Tamminen, T. (2016). Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state. Cognitive Processing, 17(1), 27-37.

Gonçalves, Ó. F., Soares, J. M., Carvalho, S., Leite, J., Ganho-Ávila, A., Fernandes-Gonçalves, A., … Sampaio, A. (2017). Patterns of default mode network deactivation in obsessive compulsive disorder. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-7.

Greicius, M. D.,Kiviniemi, V., Tervonen, O., Vainionpaa, V., Alahuhta, S., Reiss, A. L., & Menon, V. (2008). Persistent default-mode network connectivity during light sedation. Human Brain Mapping, 29, 839-847.

Greicius, M. D., Srivastava, G., Reiss, A. L., & Menon, V. (2004). Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from healthy aging: Evidence from functional MRI. PNAS, 101(13), 4637-4642.

Hafkemeijer, A., Grond, J. V. D., & Rombouts, S. A. (2012). Imaging the default mode network in aging and dementia. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1822, 431-441.

Hamilton, J. P., Farmer, M., Fogelman, P., & Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Depressive rumination, the default-mode network, and the dark matter of clinical neuroscience. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 224-230.

Hamilton, J. P., Furmer, D. J., Chang, C., Thomason, M. E., Dennis, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Default-mode and task-positive network activity in major depressive disorder: Implications for adaptive and maladaptive rumination. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 327-333.

Jang, J. H., Jung, W. H., Kang, D. H., Byun, M. S., Kwon, S. J., Choi, C. H., & Kwon, J. S. (2010). Increased default mode network connectivity associated with meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 487(3), 358-362.

Kim, J. S., Shin, K. S., Jung, W. H., Kim, S. N., Kwon, J. S., & Chung, C. K. (2014). Power spectral aspects of the default mode network in schizophrenia: An MEG study. BMC Neuroscience, 15, 104.

Koch, K., Reeß, Tim J., Rus, Oana G., Gürsel, Deniz A., Wagner, G., Berberich, G., & Zimmer, C. (2018). Increased default mode network connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder during reward processing. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 1-9.

Koch, W., Teipel, S., Mueller, S., Buerger, K., Bokde, A. L.W., Hampel, H., Coates, U., Reiser, M., & Meindl, T. (2010). Effects of aging on default mode network activity in resting state fMRI: Does the method of analysis matter? NeuroImage, 51, 280-287.

Koshino, H., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M., & Osaka, N. (2014). Co-activation of the default mode network regions and working memory network regions during task preparation. Scientific Reports, 4, 5954. doi: 10.1038/srep05954.

Kucyi, A., Hove, M. J., Biederman J., Van Dijk, K. R. A., & Valera, E. M. (2015). Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 36, 9, 3373–3386.

Liston, C., Chen, A. C., Zebley, B. D., Drysdale, A. T., Gordon, R., Leuchter, B., Voss, H. U., Casey, B. J., Etkin, A., & Dubin, M. J. (2014). Default mode network mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 76(7), 517-526.

Martins, B., & Mather, M. (2016). Default mode network and later-life emotion

regulation: Linking functional connectivity patterns and emotional outcomes.

In A. D. Ong & C. E. Lockenhoff, Emotion, Aging, and Health. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Mevel, K., Chetelat, G., Eustache, F., & Desgranges, B. (2011). The default mode network in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, doi: 10.4061/2011/535816.

Moatamedy, A., Soltani, M. A., & Hamedi, A. (2019). Identification of symptoms and design of relocation stress syndrome model for Iranian elders. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 8(32), 145-158. [in Persian]

Mowinckel, A. M., Alnæs, D., Pedersen, M. L., Ziegler, S., Fredriksen, M., Kaufmann, T., … Biele, G. (2017). Increased default-mode variability is related to reduced task-performance and is evident in adults with ADHD. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 369-382.

Mulders, P. C., van Eijndhoven, P. F., Pluijmen, J., Schene, A. H., Tendolkar, I., & Beckmann, C. F. (2016). Default mode network coherence in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder during electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 205, 130-137.

Naeimi, Kazemi, & Dehghan, (2016). The relationship between the religious orientation and irrational beliefs in the elderly of Kahrizak sanitarium. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 6(23), 179-199. [in Persian]

Ng, K. K., Lo, J. C., Lim, Joseph K. W., Chee, Michael W. L., & Zhou, J. (2016). Reduced functional segregation between the default mode network and the executive control network in healthy older adults: A longitudinal study. NeuroImage, 133, 321-330.

Onoda, K., Ishihara, M., & Yamaguchi, S. (2012). Decreased functional connectivity by aging is associated with cognitive decline. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 11, 2186-2198.

Ouchi, Y., & Kikuchi, M. (2012). A review of the default mode network in aging and dementia based on molecular imaging. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 32(3), 263-268.

Posner, J., Hellerstein, D. J., Gat, I., Mechling, A., Klahr, K., Wang, Z., … & Peterson, B. S. (2013).Antidepressants normalize the default mode network in patients with dysthymia. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(4), 373-382.

Posner, J., Song, I., Lee, S., Rodriguez, C. I., Moore, H., Marsh, R., & Simpson, H. B. (2017). Increased functional connectivity between the default mode and salience networks in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 678-687.

Prakash, R. S., De Leon, A. A., Klatt, M., Malarkey, W., & Patterson, B. (2013). Mindfulness disposition and default-mode network connectivity in older adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 112-117. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss115.

Prakash, R. S., Heo, S., Voss, M. W., Patterson, B., & Kramer, A. F. (2012). Age-related differences in cortical recruitment and suppression: Implications for cognitive performance. Behavioural Brain Research, 230, 192-200.

Rabany, L., Diefenbach, G. J., Bragdon, L. B., Pittman, B. P., Zertuche, L., Tolin, D. F., … Assaf, M. (2017). Resting-state functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder: Evidence for a dimensional approach. Brain Connectivity, 7(5), 289-299.

Sala-Llonch, R., Bartrés-Faz, D., &Junqué, C. (2015). Reorganization of brain networks in aging: A review of functional connectivity studies. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 663. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00663.

Salami, A., Pudas, S., & Nyberg, L. (2014). Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging. PNAS, 111(49), 17654-17659.

Sambataro, F., Murty, V. P., Callicott, J. H., Tan, H., Das, S. Weinberger, … & Mattay, V. S. (2010). Age-related alterations in default mode network: Impact on working memory performance. Neurobiology of Aging, 31(5), 839-852.

Sambataro, F., Wolf, N. D., Giusti, P., Vasic, N., & Wolf, R. C. (2013). Default mode network in depression: A pathway to impaired affective cognition. Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 10(5), 212-216.

Vidal-Piñeiro, D., Martín-Trias, P., Falcón, C., Bargalló, N., Clemente, I. C., Valls-Solé, J., Junqué, C., Pascual-Leone, A., & Bartrés-Faz, D. (2015). Neurochemical modulation in posteromedial default-mode network cortex induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain Stimulation, 8(5), 937-944.

Vidal-Piñeiro, D., Valls-Pedret, C., Fernández-Cabello, S., Arenaza-Urquijo, E. M., Sala-Llonch, R., Solana, E., … & Bartrés-Faz, D. (2014). Decreased default mode network connectivity correlates with age-associated structural and cognitive changes. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 256, doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00256.

Wang, L., Li, H., Liang, Y., Zhang, J., Li, X., Shu, N., … & Zhang, Z. (2013). Amnestic mild cognitive impairment: Topological reorganization of the default-mode network. Radiology, 268(2), 501-514.

Wang, P., Zhou, B., Yao, H., Zhan, Y., Zhang, Z., Cui, Y., … & Jiang, T. (2015). Aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity architectures in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment. Scientific Reports, 5. doi: 10.1038/srep14824.

Wang, Y., Chen, K., Zhang, J., Yao, L., Li, K., Jin, Z., … & Guo, X. (2014). Aging influence on gray matter structural associations within the default mode network utilizing bayesian network modeling. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 105.doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00105.

Xu, J., Vik, A., Groote, I. R., Lagopoulos, J., Holen, A., Ellingsen, O., & Davanger, S. (2014) Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8, 86. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00086.

Zhang, H. Y., Chen, W. X., Jiao, Y., Xu, Y., Zhang, X. R., & Wu, J. T. (2014). Selective vulnerability related to aging in large-scale resting brain networks. PLOS ONE, 9(10), 1-8.

 

Zhao, X. H., Wang, P. J., Li, C. B., Hu, Z. H., Xi, Q., Wu, W. Y., & Tang, X. W. (2007). Altered default mode network activity in patients with anxiety disorders: An fMRI study. European Journal of Radiology, 63, 373-378.

Andrews-Hanna, J. R. (2012). The brain’s default network and its adaptive role in internal mentation. Neuroscientist, 18(3), 251-270.

Anticevic, A., Cole, M. W., Murray, J. D., Corlett, P. R., Wang, X. J., & Krystal, J. H. (2012). The role of default network deactivation in cognition and disease. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(12), 584-592.

Apergis-Schoute,A. M., Bijleveld, B., Gillan,C. M., Fineberg,N. A., Sahakian, B. J., & Robbins,T. W. (2018). Hyper connectivity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Brain and Neuroscience Advances, 2, 1-10.

Beason-Held, L. L., Kraut, M. A., & Resnick, S. M. (2009). Stability of default-mode network activity in the aging brain. Brain Imaging and Behavior, 3(2), 123-131.

Berman, M. G., Peltier, S., Nee, D. E., Kross, E., Deldin, P. J., & Jonides, J. (2011). Depression, rumination and the default network. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6(5), 548-555.

Beucke, J. C., Sepulcre, J., Eldaief, M. C., Sebold, M., Kathmann, N., & Kaufmann, C. (2014). Default mode network subsystem alterations in obsessive-compulsive disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 205(5), 376-382.

Broyd, S. J., Demanuele, C., Debener, S., Helps, S. K., James, C. J, & Sonuga-Barke, E. J. S. (2009). Default-mode brain dysfunction in mental disorders: A systematic review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 33, 279-296.

Buckner, R. L. (2013). The brain’s default network: Origins and implications for the study of psychosis. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 15(3), 351-358.

Buckner, R. L., Andrews-Hanna, J. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). The brain’s default network anatomy, function, and relevance to disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124, 1-38.

Dai, Q., Yin, X., Huang, J., Li, H., Wang, J., & Feng, Z. (2018).Default model network mechanism in current and remitted depression. Neuropsychiatry (London), 8(1), 126-137.

Damoiseaux, J. S., Beckmann, C. F., Sanz Arigita, E. J., Barkhof, F., Scheltens, P., Stam, C. J., … & Rombouts, S. A. (2008). Reduced Resting-State Brain Activity in the ‘‘Default Network’’ in Normal Aging. Cerebral Cortex, 18(8), 1856-1864.

Damoiseaux, J. S., Prater, K. E., Miller, B. L., & Greicius, M. D. (2012). Functional connectivity tracks clinical deterioration in Alzheimer’s disease. Neurobiology of Aging, 33(4), 19-30.

Davey, C. G., Pujol, J., & Harrison, B. J. (2016). Mapping the self in the brain's default mode network. NeuroImage, 132, 390-397.

Dennis,E. L., Gotlib,I. H., Thompson,P. M., & Thomason, M. E. (2011). Anxiety modulates insula recruitment in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in youth and adults. Brain Connectivity, 1(3), 245-254.

Doll, A., Hölzel, B. K., Boucard, C. C., Wohlschläger, A. M., & Sorg, C. (2015). Mindfulness is associated with intrinsic functional connectivity between default mode and salience networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 461. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00461.

Fan, J., Gan, J., Liu, W., Zhong, M., Liao, H., Zhang, H., …Zhu, X. (2018). Resting-state default mode network related functional connectivity is associated with sustained attention deficits in schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 12, 1-11.

Fingelkurts, A. A., Fingelkurts, A. A., & Kallio-Tamminen, T. (2016). Long-term meditation training induced changes in the operational synchrony of default mode network modules during a resting state. Cognitive Processing, 17(1), 27-37.

Gonçalves, Ó. F., Soares, J. M., Carvalho, S., Leite, J., Ganho-Ávila, A., Fernandes-Gonçalves, A., … Sampaio, A. (2017). Patterns of default mode network deactivation in obsessive compulsive disorder. Scientific Reports, 7, 1-7.

Greicius, M. D.,Kiviniemi, V., Tervonen, O., Vainionpaa, V., Alahuhta, S., Reiss, A. L., & Menon, V. (2008). Persistent default-mode network connectivity during light sedation. Human Brain Mapping, 29, 839-847.

Greicius, M. D., Srivastava, G., Reiss, A. L., & Menon, V. (2004). Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer’s disease from healthy aging: Evidence from functional MRI. PNAS, 101(13), 4637-4642.

Hafkemeijer, A., Grond, J. V. D., & Rombouts, S. A. (2012). Imaging the default mode network in aging and dementia. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1822, 431-441.

Hamilton, J. P., Farmer, M., Fogelman, P., & Gotlib, I. H. (2015). Depressive rumination, the default-mode network, and the dark matter of clinical neuroscience. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 224-230.

Hamilton, J. P., Furmer, D. J., Chang, C., Thomason, M. E., Dennis, E., & Gotlib, I. H. (2011). Default-mode and task-positive network activity in major depressive disorder: Implications for adaptive and maladaptive rumination. Biological Psychiatry, 70, 327-333.

Jang, J. H., Jung, W. H., Kang, D. H., Byun, M. S., Kwon, S. J., Choi, C. H., & Kwon, J. S. (2010). Increased default mode network connectivity associated with meditation. Neuroscience Letters, 487(3), 358-362.

Kim, J. S., Shin, K. S., Jung, W. H., Kim, S. N., Kwon, J. S., & Chung, C. K. (2014). Power spectral aspects of the default mode network in schizophrenia: An MEG study. BMC Neuroscience, 15, 104.

 

Koch, K., Reeß, Tim J., Rus, Oana G., Gürsel, Deniz A., Wagner, G., Berberich, G., & Zimmer, C. (2018). Increased default mode network connectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder during reward processing. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 1-9.

Koch, W., Teipel, S., Mueller, S., Buerger, K., Bokde, A. L.W., Hampel, H., Coates, U., Reiser, M., & Meindl, T. (2010). Effects of aging on default mode network activity in resting state fMRI: Does the method of analysis matter? NeuroImage, 51, 280-287.

Koshino, H., Minamoto, T., Yaoi, K., Osaka, M., & Osaka, N. (2014). Co-activation of the default mode network regions and working memory network regions during task preparation. Scientific Reports, 4, 5954. doi: 10.1038/srep05954.

Kucyi, A., Hove, M. J., Biederman J., Van Dijk, K. R. A., & Valera, E. M. (2015). Disrupted functional connectivity of cerebellar default network areas in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 36, 9, 3373–3386.

Liston, C., Chen, A. C., Zebley, B. D., Drysdale, A. T., Gordon, R., Leuchter, B., Voss, H. U., Casey, B. J., Etkin, A., & Dubin, M. J. (2014). Default mode network mechanisms of transcranial magnetic stimulation in depression. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 76(7), 517-526.

Martins, B., & Mather, M. (2016). Default mode network and later-life emotion

Default mode network and later-life emotion
regulation: Linking functional connectivity patterns and emotional outcomes.
In A. D. Ong & C. E. Lockenhoff, Emotion, Aging, and Health. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.

Mevel, K., Chetelat, G., Eustache, F., & Desgranges, B. (2011). The default mode network in healthy aging and Alzheimer’s disease. International Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, doi: 10.4061/2011/535816.

Moatamedy, A., Soltani, M. A., & Hamedi, A. (2019). Identification of symptoms and design of relocation stress syndrome model for Iranian elders. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 8(32), 145-158. [in Persian]

. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 8(32), 145-158. [in Persian]

Mowinckel, A. M., Alnæs, D., Pedersen, M. L., Ziegler, S., Fredriksen, M., Kaufmann, T., … Biele, G. (2017). Increased default-mode variability is related to reduced task-performance and is evident in adults with ADHD. NeuroImage: Clinical, 16, 369-382.

Mulders, P. C., van Eijndhoven, P. F., Pluijmen, J., Schene, A. H., Tendolkar, I., & Beckmann, C. F. (2016). Default mode network coherence in treatment-resistant major depressive disorder during electroconvulsive therapy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 205, 130-137.

Naeimi, Kazemi, & Dehghan, (2016). The relationship between the religious orientation and irrational beliefs in the elderly of Kahrizak sanitarium. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies, 6(23), 179-199. [in Persian]

Ng, K. K., Lo, J. C., Lim, Joseph K. W., Chee, Michael W. L., & Zhou, J. (2016). Reduced functional segregation between the default mode network and the executive control network in healthy older adults: A longitudinal study. NeuroImage, 133, 321-330.

Onoda, K., Ishihara, M., & Yamaguchi, S. (2012). Decreased functional connectivity by aging is associated with cognitive decline. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 24, 11, 2186-2198.

Ouchi, Y., & Kikuchi, M. (2012). A review of the default mode network in aging and dementia based on molecular imaging. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 32(3), 263-268.

Posner, J., Hellerstein, D. J., Gat, I., Mechling, A., Klahr, K., Wang, Z., … & Peterson, B. S. (2013).Antidepressants normalize the default mode network in patients with dysthymia. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(4), 373-382.

Posner, J., Song, I., Lee, S., Rodriguez, C. I., Moore, H., Marsh, R., & Simpson, H. B. (2017). Increased functional connectivity between the default mode and salience networks in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human Brain Mapping, 38(2), 678-687.

Prakash, R. S., De Leon, A. A., Klatt, M., Malarkey, W., & Patterson, B. (2013). Mindfulness disposition and default-mode network connectivity in older adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 112-117. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss115.

Prakash, R. S., Heo, S., Voss, M. W., Patterson, B., & Kramer, A. F. (2012). Age-related differences in cortical recruitment and suppression: Implications for cognitive performance. Behavioural Brain Research, 230, 192-200.

Rabany, L., Diefenbach, G. J., Bragdon, L. B., Pittman, B. P., Zertuche, L., Tolin, D. F., … Assaf, M. (2017). Resting-state functional connectivity in generalized anxiety disorder and social anxiety disorder: Evidence for a dimensional approach. Brain Connectivity, 7(5), 289-299.

Sala-Llonch, R., Bartrés-Faz, D., &Junqué, C. (2015). Reorganization of brain networks in aging: A review of functional connectivity studies. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 6, 663. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00663.

Salami, A., Pudas, S., & Nyberg, L. (2014). Elevated hippocampal resting-state connectivity underlies deficient neurocognitive function in aging. PNAS, 111(49), 17654-17659.

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