Identifying Early Maladaptive Schema of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Economic and Social Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran,

2 M.A in Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Economic and Social Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Literature, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran

چکیده

Cognitive models of depression propose that negative schemas and Early Maladaptive Schema contribute to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to identify the early maladaptive Schema of patients with depression disorder. The method of study is descriptive. Research statistics involves all patients with depression disorder who have come to the counseling centers of Tehran and Hamadan. The method of sample choosing is stratified sampling.  This study was conducted among 120 patients with depression disorder.  Instruments in this study were included Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Short Form of Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ). The analysis of the results showed high correlation between early maladaptive schema and symptoms of depression disorder (P < 0.05).Regression analysis showed that early maladaptive schema of social isolation/alienation, enmeshment/undeveloped self andemotional inhibitionwere independent predictors of depression disorder.  The results of the present study indicate that identifying schema of depression in patients can help them understand the predisposing factors of their problem.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identifying Early Maladaptive Schema of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mosayeb yarmohammadi vasel 1
  • yasaman savari 2
  • mohammad rasekh mahand 3
1 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Economic and Social Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
2 M.A in Psychology, Faculty of Economic and Social Science, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
3 Professor , Department of Linguistics, Faculty of Literature, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Cognitive models of depression propose that negative schemas and Early Maladaptive Schema contribute to depressive symptoms. The purpose of this study is to identify the early maladaptive Schema of patients with depression disorder. The method of study is descriptive. Research Statistics involves all patients with depression disorder who have come to the counseling centers of Tehran and Hamadan. The method of Sample choosing is stratified sampling. This study conducted among 120 patients with depression disorder. Instruments in this study were included Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Short Form of Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ). The analysis of the results showed high correlation between early maladaptive Schema and symptoms of depression disorder (P < 0.05). Regression analysis showed that early maladaptive schema of social isolation/alienation, enmeshment/undeveloped self and emotional inhibition were independent predictors of depression disorder. The results of the present study indicates that identifying Schema of depression in patients can help them understand the predisposing factors their problem.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Depression
  • Early Maladaptive Schema
  • Schema therapy
  • negative schemas
  • Major Depressive
Ahi, H. (2005). Standardization of Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form. Master's thesis. Faculty of Education and Psychology. Allameh Tabataba,i University, (Persian).
Beak. A. T. (1967). Depression: clinical experimental and theoretical aspects. New York:  Harper and Row.
Beck, A. T., & Steer, R. A. (1987). Beck depression inventory manual. New York: The Psychological Corporation Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery ,G. (1979). Cognitive Therapy Of depression. Guilford. New York.
Calvete, E., Estévez, A., López  A. E., & Ruiz, P. (2005). The schema questionnaire-short form: structure and relationship with automatic thoughts and symptoms of affective disorders. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 21, 90–99.
Cooper, M. J., Rose, K. S., & Turner, H. (2005). Core beliefs and the presence or absence of eating disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms in adolescent girls. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 38, 60-64.
Darabi, A., Borjali, A., Azami, Y. (2015). Comparison of efficacy of schema therapy cognitive and emotional techniques on early maladaptive schemas reduction of depressed persons. Quarterly Journal of Clinical Psychology Studies, 5(18), 143-166. (Persian).
First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1997). The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV, Axis I disorders– clinician version (SCID-CV). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Ghasem- Zadeh, H. (2000). Cognition of Emotion, the Clinical and Social Aspects. Tehran: Publications Cultures, (Persian).
Glaser, B. A., Campbell, L. F., Calhoun, G. B., Bates, J. M., & Petrocelli, J. V. (2002). The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: A construct validity study. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 35(1), 2–13.
Halford, W. K., Bernoth-Doolan, S., & Eadie, K. (2002). Schemata as moderators of clinical effectiveness of a comprehensive cognitive behavioural program for patients with depression or anxiety disorders. Behavior Modification, 26, 571-593.
Halvorsen, M., Wang, C. E., Richter, J., Myrland, I., Pedersen, S. K., & Eisemann, M. (2009). Early maladaptive schemas, temperament and character traits in clinically depressed and previously depressed subjects. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 16(5), 394–407.
Halvorsen, M., Wang, C.E.,  Eisemann, M., & Waterloo, K., (2010). Dysfunctional Attitudes and Early Maladaptive Schemas as Predictors of Depression: A 9-Year Follow-Up Study. Cogn Ther Res, 34:368–379.
Hankin, B. L., Abramson, L. Y., Miller, N., & Haeffel, G. J. (2004). Cognitive vulnerability-stress theories of depression: Examining affective specificity in the prediction of depression versus anxiety in three prospective studies. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28(3), 309–345.
Harris, A. E. Curtin, L. (2002). Parental perceptions, early maladaptive schemas, and depressive symptoms in young adults. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 405–416.
Heron, J., Evans, J. (2005). Negative Self Schema: depressive in women.  The British journal of Psychiatry, 186: 302-307.
Kaplan, H. Sadock, B. & Grebb, J. (1994). Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry: Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Psychiatry (2th ed). Translated Nosratollah Pourafkary. Tehran: Publications Shahrab, (persian).
Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R.,  Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 593-602.
Krefetz, D. G., Steer, R. A., Gulab, N. A., & Beck, A. T. (2002). Convergent validity of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale in psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Personality Assessment, 78, 45–460.
Lauren, B., Alloy, J., & Riskind, H. (2006). Cognitive vulnerability to emotional disorders. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. Publishers. Mahwah, New Jersey London.
Murphy, J. M., Laird, N. M., Monson, R. R., Sobol,  A. M., & Leighton, A. H. (2000). A 40-year perspective on the prevalence of depression: The Stirling County Study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 209-215.
Nordahal, H. M. & Hangom, I. A.(2005). Early Maladaptive Schema in Patient with or without Personality Disorder). Clinical Psychology and Psycho Therapy, 12, 142-149.
Petrocelli, J. V., Glaser, B. A., Calhoun, G. B., & Campbell, L. F. (2001). Cognitive schemas as mediating variables of the relationship between the self-defeating personality and depression. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 23, 183–191.
Reardon, J. M., & Williams, N. L. (2007). The specificity of cognitive vulnerabilities to emotional disorders: Anxiety sensitivity, looming vulnerability and explanatory style. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(5), 625–643.
Renner, F., Lobbestael, L., Peeters, F., Arntz, A., Huibers, M. (2012). Early maladaptive schemas in depressed patients: Stability and relation with depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. Journal of Affective Disorders, 136. 581–590.
Riso, L. P., du Toit, P. L., Blandino, J. A., Penna, S., Dacey, S., & Duin, J. S. (2003). Cognitive aspects of chronic depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1), 72–80.
Rude, S. S., Covich, J., Jarrold.  W., Hedlund, S., & Zenter, M. (2001). Cognitive therapy and Research, 25(1), 103-116.
Schmidt, N. B. , Joiner,T.  E., Young, J. E., & Telch, M. J. (1995). The schema Questionnaire: Investigation of Psychometric Properties and the hierarchical structure of a measure of maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19, 295-321.
Shah, R., Waller, G. (2000). Parental style and vulnerability to depression: the role of core beliefs. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 188, 19–25.
Slone, L.  R. (2001). Self – Schema and their influence on depression, anxiety and hostility in a chronically stressed population, 12, p. 67.
Sohrabi, F. (2015). The third wave of psychotherapy: Origins, Present status and Perspectives, with special emphasis on Schema therapy. Quarterly Journal of Clinical Psychology Studies, 5(18), 1-14. (Persian).
Specht, M. W., Chapman, A., & Celluci, T. (2009). Schemas and borderline disorder symptoms in incarcerated women. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 256-264.
Stopa, L., Thorne, P., Waters, A., & Preston, J. (2001). Are the short and long forms of the Young Schema Questionnaire comparable and how well does each version predict psychopathology scores? Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 15(3), 253–272.
Thimm, J.C. (2010). Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 373–380.
Waller, G., Meyer, C., & Ohanian, V. (2001). Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 137-147.
Wang, J., Wu, X., Lai, W., Long, E., Zhang, X., Li, W., … Lin, H. (2017). Prevalence of depression and depressive symptoms among outpatients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ open, 7(8), e017173. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017173
Wegener, I., Alfter,S., Geiser, F., Liedtke, R. and Conrad., R, (2013). Schema Change without Schema Therapy:  The Role of Early Maladaptive Schemata for a Successful Treatment of Major Depression, Washington School of Psychiatry, 76(1).
Welburn, K., Coristine, M., dogg, p.,  pontefract ,A., Jordan, S. (2002). The schema questionnaire – short Form: Factor analysis and relationship between schemas and symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and research, 26, 519 -530.  
Yarmohammadi Vasel,   M., Borjali,   A., Goolzari, M., Delavar, A. (2013). The Effect of Schema Therapy in Patients with Recurrent Depression Disorder: A Single-Case Study.  Journal of Counseling and Psychotherapy Culture, 3 (12), 21-48. (Persian).                          
Young J. E. (1998). The Young Schema Questionnaire: Short Form. Available in electronic form at: http://.home.sprynet.com/ sprynet/schema/ysqs1.htm.
Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach. Sarasota: Professional Resource Press.
Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema Therapy: a practitioner s Guide. New York: The Guilford press.
Young, JE. & Brown, G. (1990). Young schema questionnaire. New York: Cognitive Therapy Centre of New York.