نوجوانی و تحول معنا: مقایسه منابع و ابعاد معنای زندگی در دختران و پسران نوجوان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 . دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی دانشکده‌ی علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه‌ شهید بهشتی

2 دانشیار روان‌شناسی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.

3 استادیار روان‌شناسی دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.

4 دانشیار فلسفه و کلام اسلامی دانشکده الهیات و معارف اسلامی دانشگاه تهران.

چکیده

با وجود تحقیقات متعددی که بر روی تجربه­ی معنای زندگی صورت گرفته است، کماکان این ابهام وجود دارد که منابع معنابخش به زندگی یک نوجوان چیست و نوجوانان دختر و پسر چه تفاوتی از نظر این منابع و نیز ابعاد وجود و جستجوی معنای زندگی با یکدیگر دارند. مطالعه‌ی حاضر منابع و حوزه­هایی که از نظر نوجوانان به زندگی آنها معنا داده، میزان وجود و جستجوی معنای زندگی و نیز تفاوت دختران و پسران در این مولفه­ها را مورد بررسی قرار داده است. در این راستا 416 نوجوان 12 تا 18 ساله (94/15=M، 32/1=Std؛ 3/54 درصد دختر) به دو ابزار برنامه­ی ارزیابی معنای زندگی و پرسشنامه­ی معنای زندگی پاسخ دادند. به منظور تحلیل داده­ها از آزمون­های کای اسکوئر و t  مستقل استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصل حاکی از این است که از میان منابع معنا مطابق با برنامه­ی ارزیابی معنای زندگی به ترتیب، "خانواده" (3/91%)، "ارتباطات اجتماعی" (4/53 %) و "کار و تحصیل" (53%) حوزه­های هستند که با بیشترین فراوانی از سوی نوجوانان به عنوان منبع معنا بخش به زندگی گزارش شده است. همچنین در نمونه­ی مورد پژوهش 7 طبقه­ی جدید از منابع معنای زندگی مورد شناسایی قرار گرفت که از آن میان "فناوری اطلاعات" (15%) و "آینده" (3/12%) بیشترین فراوانی را به خود اختصاص دادند. شرکت­کنندگان دختر و پسر از نظر فراوانی تکرار برخی از منابع معنا و رضایت از این منابع و نیز بعد وجود معنای زندگی با یکدیگر تفاوت معنادار داشتند. این یافته­ها در چارچوب نظریات تحولی و معنای زندگی مورد بحث قرار گرفتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Adolescence and Development of Meaning: Comparing the Sources and Dimensions of Meaning in Life in Adolescent Boys and Girls

نویسندگان [English]

  • Somaye Ahmadi 1
  • Mahmood Heidari 2
  • Fatemeh Bagherian 3
  • Abdolrasoul Kashfi 4
1 Ph.D. Student of Psychology, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University
4 Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy and Islamic Kalam, Faculty of Theology and Islamic Studies, Tehran University
چکیده [English]

Despite the numerous studies that have been conducted on meaning in life, there is still an ambiguity that what are the sources of meaning in an adolescent’s life and how adolescent girls and boys differ regarding these sources and dimensions of presence and search for meaning. The present study has investigated the sources and domains that gives meaning to adolescents’ lives from their point of view, presence of and search for meaning and differences between girls and boys in these components. In this regard 416, 12 to 18 years old adolescents (M: 15.94, Std: 1.32, 54.3 % females) have completed the Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation and Meaning in Life questionnaires. Chi-square and independent t tests were used to analyze the data. The results show that among the sources of meaning regarding to The Schedule for Meaning in Life Evaluation respectively the “family” (91.3%), “social relations” (53.4%) and “occupation and education” (53%) are the areas that most frequently have been reported as a source of meaning by adolescents. Moreover, seven new categories of sources of meaning in life have been identified in this study of which “information technology” (15%) and “future” (12.3%) had the highest frequencies. Female and male participants differed in the frequency of mentioning some of these sources and also their satisfaction from these areas as well as the dimension of presence of meaning. These findings have been discussed in the context of developmental and meaning in life theories.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sources of Meaning in Life
  • Dimensions of Meaning in Life
  • adolescence
  • Development of meaning

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